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Pharm Unit 4 by Hans Kim > Asthma & COPD > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma & COPD Deck (29)
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1

definitions of asthma?

1. chronic inflammation of the airways
2. recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, coughing
3. variable airway obstruction that is often completely reversible

2

Define COPD

1. persistent airway limitation
2. progressive (not fully reversible)
3. enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lungs to noxious particles and gases

3

what are the 4 major bronchodilators?

1. inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonist
2. inhaled long-acting beta 2 agonist

4

what is the hallmark of asthma?

hyper reactive airway

5

what T lymphocytes are involved in asthma?

TH2 with excess eosinophil (normal neutrophils)

6

what T lymphocytes are involved in COPD?

TH1 with excess neutrophils (normal eosinophil)

7

what are the 4 types of bronchodilators for asthma?

1. inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonist
2. inhaled long-acting beta 2 agonist
3. inhaled anticholinergic
4. theophylline

8

what are the 4 types of anti inflammatory agents for asthma?

1. inhaled corticosteroids
2. antileukotrienes
3. cromones
4. anti-immunoglobulin E

9

what are the 2 asthma drugs that are inhaled short acting beta 2 agonist?

1. albuterol
2. terbutaline

10

what are the 2 asthma drugs that are inhaled long-acting beta 2 agonists?

1. salmeterol
2. formoterol

11

what are the 2 inhaled anticholinergic?

1. iprotropium
2. tiotropium

12

slow-release theophylline and aminophylline

theophylline

13

what are the inhaled corticosteroids?

1. budesonide
2. fluticasone
3. beclomethasone
4. mometasone

14

names of antileukotrienes?

1. montelukast
2. zafirlukast
3. zileuton

15

when prescribing long acting beta 2 for asthma, what do you also need to give?

inhaled corticosteroids

16

what are the names of cromones?

sodium cromglycate and nedocromil

17

what is the name of the anti-immunoglobulin E?

omalizumab

18

what is the R isomer of albuterol?

levalbuterol

19

what is methylxanthines?

weak bronchodilator --> theophylline, theobromine, and caffein

20

what are the mech of methylxanthines (theophylline)?

non selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE) bronchodilation

21

what is the selective PDE4 inhibitor?

roflumilast

22

characteristics of Roflumilast (PDE4 inhibitor)?

 More of an anti-inflammatory agent
◦ Prevents neutrophil migration by inhibiting PDE4 isoforms
 Improvement in lung function is secondary to antiinflammatory
action rather than bronchodilation (very
weak)
 Clinical use approved in COPD.

23

what are the major side effects of methylxanthine (theophylline)

1. cardiac arrythmia
2. seizure
3. anorexia, nausea, headahce, insomnia, GERD

24

what is the cornerstone treatment for persistent asthma?

corticosteroid

25

why is corticosteroid beneficial to combine with beta 2 agonist?

1. corticosteroid increase transcription of beta 2 receptor gene
2. beta 2 agonist increase translocation of glucocorticoid receptor from cytoplasm to the nucleus

26

what is the pro-drug that has on site activation by esterase?

ciclesonide

27

what is the drug of choice for aspirin induced asthma?

leukotriene inhibitors

28

does leukotriene have a role in COPD?

no, no role in COPD

29

what drug prevent mast cell degranulation and mediator release form macrophage and eosinophil?

sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium