Clinical Conundrum Flashcards Preview

GI > Clinical Conundrum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Conundrum Deck (30):
0

when RBC's are broken down, the heme is acted upon by _____ which converts it to ___

heme oxygenase, Fe CO and Biliverdin

1

where do RBC's get broken down?

spleen, liver, bone marrow

2

bilirubin is created by the enzyme _____

biliverdin reductase

3

how does bilirubin get transported through the blood?

by linking on to albumin

4

in the liver, the enzyme ___ conjugates bilirubin making it ___

UDP glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT), hydrophilic

5

enterohepatic circulation

the secretion and reuptake of bile

6

unconjugated bilirubin is called:

indirect bilirubin

7

conjugated bilirubin is called:

direct bilirubin

8

someone with O blood type has anti ____ antibodies

A and B

9

someone with an A blood type has anti ___ antibodies

B

10

a thick meconium is associated with ___

cystic fibrosis

11

in physiologic jaundice, what kind of bilirubin builds up in the baby?

unconjugated

12

why does breast-feeding cause jaundice?

1. it has beta-glucoronidase, an inhibitor of glucoronidase 2. it increases the reuptake of unconjugated bilirubin

13

other causes of jaundice in infants:

ABO incompatibility hypothyroidism-UGT needs thyroid hormone

14

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I

have no UGT

15

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II

have reduced amount of UGT

16

Gilbert's syndrome

reduced activity of UGT

17

Dubin-Johnson

impaired canalicular export of conjugated bilirubin

18

Rotor syndrome

impaired canalicular export of conjugated bilirubin

19

what's the problem with jaundice? (also disease name)

neurological defects (Kernicterus)

20

if they have normal colored urine, the bilirubin is _____

unconjugated

21

what is the main purpose of phototherapy?

convert the bilirubin to hydrophilic bilirubin so that the baby can pee it out

22

scleral icterus

yellowing of the sclera due to jaundice

23

at what level of bilirubin do people tend to look jaundiced?

2 or 3

24

a high alkaline phosphatase level is associated with ___

a biliary problem

25

prothrombin time is a measure of ____

clotting, and therefore function of the liver (liver makes clotting factors)

26

if conjugated is > 1/3 of total, we have a _____

conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

27

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

put a catheter into the mouth and put in contrast to look back up to the biliary tree

28

HIDA

tag the bilirubin

29

Kasai procedure

carve out the biliary tree and connect a piece of the small intestine to it