_____ of blood comes into the liver from the hepatic artery
-regulation of protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism -regulation of cholesterol production and excretion -β-oxidation of fatty acids -bile acid production -degradation of hormones -detoxification and excretion of drugs and toxins -vitamin storage
_____ of blood comes into the liver from the portal vein
the pressure in the hepatic vein is under _____
interstitial space between parenchymal hepatocytes where lymph is secreted:
space of Disse
canals that bile flows through:
the hallmark obstructive liver disease is ____, which is characterized by ____
increased hepatic vein pressure ---> pooling of blood in liver capillaries---> increased capillary hydrostatic pressure ---> increased transudation of fluid from plasma and space of Disse into the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen forming ascites
because lymphatics are also involved, in ascites, you get ____ in the fluid
if you have minor ascites, the _____ can absorb fluid to take care of it
there is normally ____ of blood in the liver. In hepatomegaly, the liver can increase to ____
400 ml, 1 L
yellowing of skin and eyes from excess bilirubin in the blood
bilirubin is a product of ___
obstruct the ability of bile to be made or secreted so it ends up in the blood instead- cirrhosis, gallstones, biliary atresia, cancer
can result from acute or chronic hepatitis, reduces the ability of the hepatic cells to metabolize bilirubin. ex. alcoholic hepatitis
results from anything that increases hemolysis of RBC's, so that bilirubin production increases faster than bile can excrete it
not usually pathologic, the GI tract is not mature enough/prepared to process the bilirubin and excrete it
how does the liver function as a blood glucose monitor?
glycogen storage, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis
what hormone stimulates insulin secretion
the liver has ____ family glucose transporters which are insulin-_____, allowing for ____
GLUT2, insulin-independent, high capacity transport (can't wait for insulin)
if you didn't have the liver, your blood glucose levels would be about ____ higher
most lipoproteins are formed in the ___
what do HDL's do?
ship lipids back to the liver for processing
the liver converts unused carbs to ____
how does deamination of amino acids occur?
aminotransferases remove the amino group to an acceptor. It is transferred or released as ammonia.
excess NH3 is removed by production of ____. How does this happen?
urea, NH3 combines with CO2
___% of plasma proteins (i.e. ____) are made by the liver
90, albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
what symptoms may occur if the liver can't function?
ascites, jaundice, portal hypertension, bleeding/bruising, cognitive problems, weakness, nausea, cholestasis (reduced bile flow), acidosis