Clinical Integration VIII Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Clinical Integration VIII > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Integration VIII Deck (30):
1

75% of prostatic cancers are associated with elevated..?

serum PSA (prostate specific antigen)

2

What is PSA?

organ specific
not malignancy specfic

3

With what conditions is PSA high?

BPH
prostatitis
infarction
following ejaculation
DRE
exercise
biopsy

4

what measures should be used to diagnose prostate cancer?

DRE
PSA
biopsy

5

what is the problems with the cancerous lesions in the prostate gland?

they are not close to urethra (unlike the BPH), so you don't get symptoms for a while...

6

what site is most BPH originate?

mucosal glands
submucosal glands

closer to urethra

7

where is most prostatic cancer found?

in the main prostate glands

far away from urethra

8

what happens to the columnar cells of the endocervix?

they undergo metaplastic changes to become more resilient cells of the ectocervix

9

what can happen to the endocervix metaplsia under persistent stress?

dysplasia and lead to cancer - HPV

10

what type of neoplasm is HPV?

cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN)

11

what does HPV infect?

immature basal cells of squamous epithelium
or
metaplastic squamous cells at the squamocolumnar junction

HPV cannot infect mature cells!

12

characteristics of CIN?

asymptomatic

if dysplasia continues -> squamous cell carcinoma - because cancer is within epithelium

13

what are risk factors for cervical cancer?

-number of lifetime partners
-young age - age 20-24 ish
-tobacco use - increase risk by 2x
-BC pill more than 5 yrs.
-weak immune system

14

what are chaacteristics of leiomyoma/fibroid

well circumscribed'
does not infiltrate surrounding tissue
histology looks normal

15

where are leiomyomas usually found?

uterine myometrium

16

how are leiomyomas classified?

-subserosa - under serosa
-intramural - within myometrium
-subserosal - under endometrium

17

what are symptoms of leiomyomas?

-menorrhagia
-metorrhagia
-infertility

18

what are characteristics of proliferative epithelium?

highly cellular
straight glands

19

what are characteristics of secretory epithelium

coiled glands
glycogen stores
spiral arteries
progesterone

20

what is endometriosis

occurence of endometrial tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity

21

what are some extra uterine locations for endometriosis?

ovary
fallopian tubes
parametrium
gut
serosa
umbilicus
pouch of Douglas

22

what are some morphological structures of endometriosis?

endometrial glands
endometrial stroma
hemosiderin pigment

23

what are clinical features of endometriosis?

dysmenorrhea
pelvic pain
dysparenunia
infertility

24

what is polycycstic ovarian symdrome?

-stein levanthal Syndrome
-hormonal imblanace (LH:FSH 2:1)
-affects women of repro age

25

what are clinical symptoms of POS?

oligomenorrhea - infreq. menstration
anovulation
obesity
hirsutism - male pattern of body hair
virilism - male secondary sex characteristics dev.

26

how do ovaries appear with POs?

-extremely large
-thick capsule with many unruptures follicles cysts which are lined by granulosa cells and hypertrophied theca intera cells
-stroma is thick and hypertrophies
-no corpus luteum

Thick tunica albuginea
-follicles arrested in different stages fo development
-cysts may contain clear gelatinous or serosangineous fluid

27

what is breast cancer due to?

family history
-mutation in BRCA1, BRCA 2, P53

28

describe the mammary glands?

modified sweat glands
15-25 lobes -compound tubuloalveolar glands
glandular elements - arranged in a radial fashion around the nipple into which ducts from secretory unit empty
-apocrine + merocrine gland!

29

what is breast cancer in postmenopausal women due to?

estrogen

30

where does the main souce of estogen come from?

aromatization of adrenal-produced androgen