Endocrine System I & II Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Endocrine System I & II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System I & II Deck (81)
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1

what are the classifications of hormones?

steroids
small peptides, polypeptides and proteins = peptide hormones
amino acid and arachidonic acid analog and their derivatives = biogenic amines

2

what are the two ways target organs can be activated (receptor mechanisms)?

cell surface receptors - unable to penetrate the cell membrane

intracellular receptors - hormones that penetrate plasma and nuclear membrane - no second messenger involved

3

which hormones use cell surface receptors?

peptide hormones

4

which hormones use intracellular receptors?

steroid hormones

5

what is the functions of endocrine organs?

regulate activities

maintain homeostasis

coordinate body growth and development

6

what are the two types of feedback?

positive

negative (more common)

7

what are characteristics common to all endocrine organs?

reticular fibers

fenestrated capillaries (sinusoids)

secrete hormones

8

what makes up the diencephalon?

thalamus and hypothalamus

9

what is the origin of the pituitary gland?

dual: oralectogerm and neuroectoderm

10

what makes up the anterior pituitary gland?

pars tuberalis
pars distalis
pars intermedia

11

what makes up the posterior pituitary gland?

median eminence
infundibulum
pars nervosa

12

whats another name for anterior pituitary?

adenohypophysis

13

whats another name for posterior pituitary?

neurohypophysis

14

where does the anterior pituitary come from?

Rathke's pouch - oralectoderm

15

where does the posterior pituitary come from?

neuroectoderm

16

which pituitary has an abundance of cells (stains dense)?

anterior

17

what pituitary stains lighter and why?

posterior
presence of myelin - nerves etc.

18

what cells make up the anterior pituitary?

chromophobes
chromophils
-acidophils (35%)
-basophils (15%)

19

what two types of cells make up acidophils?

somatotropes
mammotrophs/lactotrophs

20

what does somatotropes secrete?

GH (growth hormone)

21

what does mammotrophs/lactotrophs secrete?

PRL (prolactin)

22

what three cell types make up basophils?

gonadotrophs
corticotrophs
thyrotrophs

23

what does gonadotrophs secrete?

FSH
LH

24

what does coricortrophs secrete?

ACTH (adrenocorticotropin)

25

what does thyrotrophs secrete?

TSH

26

which chromophils act on other endocrine organs?

basophils = tropic

27

what does FSH and LH target?

testes or ovaries

28

what does TSH target?

thyroid

29

what does ACTH target?

adrenal cortex

30

wht does prolactin target?

mammary glands