Flashcards in Clinical Integration X Deck (28)
what is the plasma membrane composed of?
lipid bilayer containing intrinsic protein and with an external coat of carbs
what are the 6 major categories of integral membrane proteins
what is tetrodotoxin?
produced by puffer fish
-inactivates Na+ channels by occupying the Na+ binding sites (in nerves), paralyzing the prey
-ingested by humans - dizziness, tingling around mouth, ataxia, respiratory paralysis, death
what is cholera?
exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera
-alters Gs protein so that it is unable to hydrolyze its GTP molecule
-cAMP levels increase in the absoprtive surface of cells of intestine, leading to excess sodium ions and water loss = diarrhea
what do venoms do?
inactivate ACh receptors located on the skeletal muscle sarcolemma at NMJ
what happens in autoimmune diseases?
produce antibodies that bind to certain plasma membrane receptors causing them to be activated
what is heriditary spherocytosis?
fragile, mis-shaped RBCs
defective spectrin that has decreased ability to bind to band 4.1 protein
marked by anemia due to increased destruction of spherocytes in the spleen
what are the two types of chromosomes?
sex chromosomes - XX female, XY males = the 23 pair
autosomal chromosomes = the other 22 pairs
what does FISH technique stand for?
flourescent in-situ hydridization
what is hybridization?`
ability of single stranded DNA or RNA to interact (hybridize)with complementary sequence
what is Klinefelter's syndrome?
aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes (XXY)
-infertility, masculinization and small testes
what is Turner's syndrome?
associated wtih monosomy of the sex chromosomes (XO)
-this monosomy is compatible with life
what are transformed cells?
lost their ability to respond to regulatory signals controlling teh cell cycle and may undergo cell division indefinitely, thus becoming cancerous
may be arrested in mitosis by admin of Vinca alkaloids - other drugs block purine and pyrimidine synthesis - thus arresting cells int eh S phase of the cell cycle = bassis of chemo in cancer Tx
what are lysosomal storage diseases in gneral?
hereditary conditions in which the synthesis of specific lysosomal acid hydrolases is impaired
what are the function of peroxisomes?
degrades long chain FA and aa
also degrades the resulting hydrogen peroxide`
what do certain enzymes in peroxisomes produce?
what is peroxidase?
anotehr peroxisomal enzyme - uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize other substrates, including phenols, formic acids, formaldehyde and alcohol by the means of peroxidation rection
what is the peroxidation reaciton important in?
liver and kidney cells
what does catalase do?
when hydrogen peroxide accumulates catalase converts it to water
what does kartegener result in
recurrent pulmonary infections
sterility in males
what is a characteristic of alzheimers disease?
what are tau proteins?
noramlly help maintain the axonal integration
what happens to tau proteins in alzheimers disease?
get phosphorylated and increase to toxic levels - brain cells fial to rocgnize changed proteins and they are not destroyed
what are the 2 types of astrocytes?
what are the functions of astrocytes?
what is specific characteristic of astrocytes?
contain GFAP - can proliferated rapidly after injury forming scars - MS!
what are 80% of brain tumors?
charactersied by prescence of arge number of GFAP