Clinical Integration X Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Clinical Integration X > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Integration X Deck (28):
1

what is the plasma membrane composed of?

lipid bilayer containing intrinsic protein and with an external coat of carbs

2

what are the 6 major categories of integral membrane proteins

pumps
channels
receptors
linkers
enzymes
structural proteins

3

what is tetrodotoxin?

produced by puffer fish
-inactivates Na+ channels by occupying the Na+ binding sites (in nerves), paralyzing the prey

-ingested by humans - dizziness, tingling around mouth, ataxia, respiratory paralysis, death
-neurotoxin
-no antidote

4

what is cholera?

exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera
-alters Gs protein so that it is unable to hydrolyze its GTP molecule
-cAMP levels increase in the absoprtive surface of cells of intestine, leading to excess sodium ions and water loss = diarrhea

5

what do venoms do?

inactivate ACh receptors located on the skeletal muscle sarcolemma at NMJ

6

what happens in autoimmune diseases?

produce antibodies that bind to certain plasma membrane receptors causing them to be activated

-Grave's disease(hyperthyroidism)

7

what is heriditary spherocytosis?

fragile, mis-shaped RBCs
defective spectrin that has decreased ability to bind to band 4.1 protein
marked by anemia due to increased destruction of spherocytes in the spleen

8

what are the two types of chromosomes?

sex chromosomes - XX female, XY males = the 23 pair

autosomal chromosomes = the other 22 pairs

9

what does FISH technique stand for?

flourescent in-situ hydridization

10

what is hybridization?`

ability of single stranded DNA or RNA to interact (hybridize)with complementary sequence

11

what is Klinefelter's syndrome?

aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes (XXY)
-infertility, masculinization and small testes

12

what is Turner's syndrome?

associated wtih monosomy of the sex chromosomes (XO)
-short stature
-sterility
-other abnormalities
-this monosomy is compatible with life

13

what are transformed cells?

lost their ability to respond to regulatory signals controlling teh cell cycle and may undergo cell division indefinitely, thus becoming cancerous

may be arrested in mitosis by admin of Vinca alkaloids - other drugs block purine and pyrimidine synthesis - thus arresting cells int eh S phase of the cell cycle = bassis of chemo in cancer Tx

14

what are lysosomal storage diseases in gneral?

hereditary conditions in which the synthesis of specific lysosomal acid hydrolases is impaired

15

what are the function of peroxisomes?

degrades long chain FA and aa
also degrades the resulting hydrogen peroxide`

16

what do certain enzymes in peroxisomes produce?

hydrogen peroxide

17

what is peroxidase?

anotehr peroxisomal enzyme - uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize other substrates, including phenols, formic acids, formaldehyde and alcohol by the means of peroxidation rection

18

what is the peroxidation reaciton important in?

liver and kidney cells

19

what does catalase do?

when hydrogen peroxide accumulates catalase converts it to water

20

what does kartegener result in

situs inversus
recurrent pulmonary infections
sterility in males

21

what is a characteristic of alzheimers disease?

neurofibrillary tangles

22

what are tau proteins?

noramlly help maintain the axonal integration

23

what happens to tau proteins in alzheimers disease?

get phosphorylated and increase to toxic levels - brain cells fial to rocgnize changed proteins and they are not destroyed

24

what are the 2 types of astrocytes?

protoplasmic
fibrous

25

what are the functions of astrocytes?

vascular support
BBB
neuroal migration

26

what is specific characteristic of astrocytes?

contain GFAP - can proliferated rapidly after injury forming scars - MS!

27

what are 80% of brain tumors?

astrocytoma

charactersied by prescence of arge number of GFAP

28

what is a valuble marker for ID of atrocytes?

immunohistochemistry