Integumentary System I and II Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Integumentary System I and II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System I and II Deck (79):
1

What are the essential functions of the integumentary system?

barrier
immunologic
homeostasis
sensory
endocrine
excretion

2

what type of epithelium makes up the epidermis?

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

3

what is the epidermis derived from?

ectoderm

4

what type of tissue is the dermis made of?

dense CT

5

what is the dermis derived from?

mesoderm

6

what type of cells make up the stratum corneum?

keratinized cells

7

what is eleiden?

protein similar to keratin - transformation product of keratonhyalin

8

what type of skin is stratum lucidum found in?

thick skin only

9

what type of cells are found in the stratum basale?

mitotically active cells

10

what layers make up the stratum malpighii?

basale and spinosum

11

what type of cells make up the single layer of cells found in the stratum basale?

small, cuboidal to low columnar

12

how do the cells of the stratum basale attach to ECM while resting on basal lamina?

hemidesmosomes

13

what type of granules are found in the stratum granulosum?

keratohyalin granules

14

what is Parakeratosis?

keratin layer is abnormal - contains nuclear remnants

15

what is acanthusis?

abnormal epidermal thickening
- due to increase depth of stratum spinosum
common feature of many skin conditions

16

what layers make up the dermis?

papillary layer
reticular layer

17

what type of CT is found in papillary layer?

loose CT

18

what type of CT is found in reticular layer?

dense CT

19

what is the main cell type of epidermis?

keratinocytes

20

what are the cells of the epidermis?

keratinocytes
melanocytes
langerhan's cells
merkel cells

21

what type of cells Langerhan's cells?

antigen presenting cells

22

what types of cells are merkel cells?

cutaneous sensation

23

What are the two essentials activities of keratinocytes?

produce keratin
epidermal water barrier formation

24

what do keratohyalin granules contain?

intermediate filament associated proteins = filaggrin
trichohyalin

25

what are tonofilaments?

intermediate filaments = keratin filaments

26

what are tonofibrils?

bundles of tonofilaments

27

what is the ABCD rule of Malignant melanoma?

Asymmetrical
Border is irregular
Color variation
Diameter

28

where are the melanocytes in light skin?

concentrated near basal layer

29

where are the melanocytes in dark skin?

throughout the epidermis

30

in what skin is melanocyte degradation more rapid?

light skin

31

what does exposure to UV light accelerate?

melanin production

32

what is albinism?

lack of pigmentation
absence of tyrosinase - inability to produce melanin

33

what makes up merkel's corpuscle?

neuron and merkel's cells

34

what are the types of sensory receptors?

free and encapsulated

35

what are in free sensory receptors?

free nerve endings
merkels corpuscle

36

what makes up encapsulated sensory receptors?

pacinian corspuscles
krause's end bulb
meissner corpuscles
ruffinis corpuscles

37

what are the deep pressure receptors?

pacinian corpuscles

38

what are meissner's corpuscles?

touch receptors

39

what are nails?

plates of keratinized cells containing hard keratin

40

what does an eccrine sweat gland produce?

sweat

41

what does apocrine sweat glands produce?

mixed product -
sweat with high concentration of carbs lipids and proteins

42

what is the eponychium?

cuticle - hard keratin covering of nail root

43

what is hyponychium?

thick epidermal layer
secures free edge of nail plate at fingertip

44

what are the layers of the epidermis?

stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale

45

where are stem cells present?

stratum basale of epidermis

46

how do the spinous processes of the cells in the stratum spinosum attach to adjacent cells?

desmosomes

47

what skin layer of the epidermis has a water barrier?

stratum corneum

48

which layer of the skin forms the regular tension lines of the skin called langer's lines?

reticular layer

49

what is in the reticular layer?

collagen type I and elastic fibers

50

what structural elements make up the epidermal water barrier of the keratinocytes?

cell envelope - insoluble proteins on inner plasma membrane
lipid envelope - lamellar bodies

51

what is the purpose of the epidermal water barrier?

maintian body homeostasis
essential for mammalian dry skin

52

what are lamellar bodies?

in lipid envelope
- glycosphingolipids, phospholipids, ceramides
- secreted by exocytosis

53

where are melanocytes found in epidermis?

stratum basale

54

where are melanocytes derived from?

neural crest cells

55

what does melanocytes do?

make and donate melanin to keratinocytes - keratinocytes phagocytize the tips of melanocyte processes (dendrites)

56

is the number of melanocytes equal in light skin and dark skin?

yes

57

what layer of epidermis is Langerhan's cells found?

stratum spinosum

58

where are merkels cells found?

stratum basale

59

what does the cytoplasm of merkels cells contain and what is it closely associated with?

dense neurosecretory granules
closely associated with terminal bulb of afferent nerve fibers

60

what is the function of Merkel's corpuscle?

mechanoreceptor
cutaneous sensation

61

where are pacinian corpuscles located?

deep dermis and hypodermis
- myelinated n. ending at one pole
- unmyelinated portion of axons extends to opposite pole

62

where are Meissner's corpuscles located?

dermal papillae of hairless skin - lips, fingers, toes

63

what types of nerves are found in Meissner's corpuscles?

unmyelinated endings of myelinated nerve fibers

64

what are epidermal skin appendages derived from?

downgrowths of epidermal epithelium during development

65

what are the epidermal skin appendages?

nails
hair follicles
sebaceous glands
eccrine sweat glands
apocrine sweat glands

66

what is hair?

keratinized cells containing hard keratin

67

what is nail bed continuous with?

stratum basale and spinosum of epidermis

68

which part of the nail is the germative zone?

nail matrix

69

what does hair color depend on?

content and type of melanin

70

what is the dermal sheath?

CT surrounding hair follicle

71

what is root sheath?

outer - 1 = cont. with epidermis
inner 2-4 = extends to sebaceous gland level
- henle's layer
- huxleys layer
- cuticle of inner sheath

72

how do sebaceous glands develop?

outgrowth of external root sheath of hair follicle

73

what is sebum?

oily substance
coats hair and skin surface
holocrine secretion
role in acne

74

what cells in sebaceous glands are mitotically active and sit on basal lamina?

basal cells

75

what is the function of eccrine glands?

regulate body temp

76

what are the two segments of eccrine sweat glands?

secretory - clear cells, dark cells, myoepithelial cells
duct

77

where are apocrine sweat glands found?

axilla
areola
gentitoanal

78

which sweat gland secretions contain pheromones?

apocrine sweat glands

79

what type of secretion do apocrine sweat glands have?

merocrine - apical vessicles released by exocytosis