Respiratory System I and II Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Respiratory System I and II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System I and II Deck (40):
1

Where does gas exchange occur?

alveoli

2

what are the two divisions of the respiratory system?

conducting portion
respiratory portion

3

what makes up the conducting airway?

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchiole

4

what makes up respiratory portion?

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

5

what type of epithelium is found in the Nares?

stratified squamous keratinized epithelium

sweat glands, hair follicles, sebaceous glands

6

what is the first portion of the nasal cavity?

vestibule

7

what does the vestibule contain?

vibrissae

8

what type of epithelium is found in the vestibule?

see changes to pseudostratfied ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (respiratory epithelium)

9

what are the features of the lamina propria in the vestibule?

its vascular (many venous plexi)
number of mixed seromucous glands

10

what are intraepithelial glands

multi-cellular glands that remain within the epithelium (unique!)

11

what are the 3 types of olfactory epithelium?

pseudostratified columnar :
1. olfactory cells
2. supporting cells
3. basal cells

NO GOBLET CELLS

12

what gland is essential for smelling? where are they located?

Bowman's glands
located in LP

13

what does the larynx do?

connect the pharynx with trachea

14

what supports the larynx?

hyaline cartilage (thyroid, cricoid, lower arytenoid)
Elastic cartilage (epiglottis, corniculate and tips of arytenoids)
Striated muscle and CT with glands

15

what do true vocal chords consist of ?

skeletal muscle (vocalis)
vocal ligament (band of elastic fibers)
covering of stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium

16

what does respiratory epithelium line?

base of epiglottis to trachea and primary bronchi

17

what makes up the false vocal cord (vestibular fold)?

loose CT containing glands and lymph aggregations
covered by respiratory epithelium
its superior to true cords

18

where would you never find smooth muscle?

under the ciliated epithelium of the trachea

19

what are the types of cells found in respiratory epithelium?

ciliated cells
mucous cells (mature goblet and small mucous granule "brush" cells)

20

how do small mucous granule "brush" cells attach to other cells?

tight junctions

21

how do APUD (enteroendocrine) cells exert its effects?

via paracrine regulation - local effet on nearby structures and cell types

22

what is an important feature of the LP elastic fibers?

they run longitudinally and separate the LP from the submuscosa

23

what segment contains the seromucous glands?

submucosa

24

what is within the adventitia?

C shaped cartilages

25

what area has irregular cartilage plates in their walls (disappearing cartilage)?

intrapulmonary bronchi (secondary bronchi)

26

do bronchioles have cartilage in their walls?

NO
smooth CIRCULAR muscle replaces the cartilage plates - no glands present

27

what type of epithelium lines the primary bronchioles?

ciliar colmnar with goblet cells

28

what type of epithelium lines the terminal and respiratory bronchioles?

ciliated cuboidal with secretory Clara cells (phagocytic)

29

what cells make up the terminal bronchiole?

simple cuboidal with Clara cells
ciliated cells

30

what do Clara cells contain an abundance of? What is their function?

sER
enzymes may be involved in metabolizing toxins from the inspired air

31

what happens to the wall of respiratory bronchioles?

interrupted by alveoli - which make the first portion of pulmonary tree in which gaseous exchange takes place

32

what is the rest of the wall of the respiratory bronchioles lined by?

simple cuboidal epithelial cells consisting of Clara cells and ciliated cells

33

what separates each alveolar duct from one another?

interalveolar septum

34

where is smooth muscle present in alveolar ducts?

in the septum at the opening of adjacent alveoli

35

what structure contains smooth muscle in its walls?

alveolar duct

36

what type of epithelium lines alveolar ducts?

simple squamous epithelium (type I and Type II pneumocytes)

37

what cell forms part of the blood gas barrier?

type I pneumocytes

38

what covers about 95% of alveolar surface?

type I pneumocytes

39

what pneumocytes produces surfactant?

type II

40

what is the prinicple mononuclear phagocyte of the alveolar surface?

alveolar macrophage