Flashcards in Respiratory System I and II Deck (40)
Where does gas exchange occur?
what are the two divisions of the respiratory system?
what makes up the conducting airway?
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchiole
what makes up respiratory portion?
what type of epithelium is found in the Nares?
stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
sweat glands, hair follicles, sebaceous glands
what is the first portion of the nasal cavity?
what does the vestibule contain?
what type of epithelium is found in the vestibule?
see changes to pseudostratfied ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (respiratory epithelium)
what are the features of the lamina propria in the vestibule?
its vascular (many venous plexi)
number of mixed seromucous glands
what are intraepithelial glands
multi-cellular glands that remain within the epithelium (unique!)
what are the 3 types of olfactory epithelium?
pseudostratified columnar :
1. olfactory cells
2. supporting cells
3. basal cells
NO GOBLET CELLS
what gland is essential for smelling? where are they located?
located in LP
what does the larynx do?
connect the pharynx with trachea
what supports the larynx?
hyaline cartilage (thyroid, cricoid, lower arytenoid)
Elastic cartilage (epiglottis, corniculate and tips of arytenoids)
Striated muscle and CT with glands
what do true vocal chords consist of ?
skeletal muscle (vocalis)
vocal ligament (band of elastic fibers)
covering of stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
what does respiratory epithelium line?
base of epiglottis to trachea and primary bronchi
what makes up the false vocal cord (vestibular fold)?
loose CT containing glands and lymph aggregations
covered by respiratory epithelium
its superior to true cords
where would you never find smooth muscle?
under the ciliated epithelium of the trachea
what are the types of cells found in respiratory epithelium?
mucous cells (mature goblet and small mucous granule "brush" cells)
how do small mucous granule "brush" cells attach to other cells?
how do APUD (enteroendocrine) cells exert its effects?
via paracrine regulation - local effet on nearby structures and cell types
what is an important feature of the LP elastic fibers?
they run longitudinally and separate the LP from the submuscosa
what segment contains the seromucous glands?
what is within the adventitia?
C shaped cartilages
what area has irregular cartilage plates in their walls (disappearing cartilage)?
intrapulmonary bronchi (secondary bronchi)
do bronchioles have cartilage in their walls?
smooth CIRCULAR muscle replaces the cartilage plates - no glands present
what type of epithelium lines the primary bronchioles?
ciliar colmnar with goblet cells
what type of epithelium lines the terminal and respiratory bronchioles?
ciliated cuboidal with secretory Clara cells (phagocytic)
what cells make up the terminal bronchiole?
simple cuboidal with Clara cells
what do Clara cells contain an abundance of? What is their function?
enzymes may be involved in metabolizing toxins from the inspired air
what happens to the wall of respiratory bronchioles?
interrupted by alveoli - which make the first portion of pulmonary tree in which gaseous exchange takes place
what is the rest of the wall of the respiratory bronchioles lined by?
simple cuboidal epithelial cells consisting of Clara cells and ciliated cells
what separates each alveolar duct from one another?
where is smooth muscle present in alveolar ducts?
in the septum at the opening of adjacent alveoli
what structure contains smooth muscle in its walls?
what type of epithelium lines alveolar ducts?
simple squamous epithelium (type I and Type II pneumocytes)
what cell forms part of the blood gas barrier?
type I pneumocytes
what covers about 95% of alveolar surface?
type I pneumocytes
what pneumocytes produces surfactant?