Flashcards in Clinical V Renal Deck (51)
what are histological alterations of the filtration mechanism associated with glomerular injury?
thickening of the BM
hyalinosis and sclerosis
what are causes of glomerular kidney disorder?
toxic or infectious agents
what are example of glomerular kidney disorders?
what are some causes of tubular kidney disorders?
what are some causes of interstitial kidney disorders?
what are examples of vascular kidney disorders?
what is acute proliferative (post streptococcal Post infectious) glomerular nephritis
inflammation reaction = injury of the capillary wall
there is an escape of RBCs
leads to nephrotic syndrome
what are the symptoms associated with nephrotic syndrome?
where might you find Ag-Ab complexes - electron dense deposits?
subendothelial - circulating, granular
subepithelial - in situ, granular
membranous - in situ, linear
what occurs with hypercellularity in post streptococcal GN?
endothelial and mesangial cells
infiltration of neutrophils
what can you see with immunoflourescence in post streptococcal GN?
GRANULAR deposits of IgG, IgM and complement along BM
what can you see using electron micrograph in post streptococcal GN?
subendothelial intramembraneous and subepithelial hump against the GBM
what is Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)? What population is it commonly found in? What type of injury?
upper respiratory tract infection
young children and adults
diffuse and global injury
what are histological symptoms of Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)
increased mesangial maxtrix and cellularity
EM = electron dense deposits in the mesangium
IF = deposits of IgA (HALLMARK)*
associated with nephrotic syndrome
what is nephrotic syndrome?
increase in permeability of the capillary wall to plasma proteins
what are characteritstics of the PCT?
what is the function of the loop of Henle in relation to the tubules?
create a hypertonic environment surrounding the tubules
what are characteristics of the DCT?
well developed basal foldings
what can cause tubular and interstitial injury?
iodine containing contrast agents
what protein is affected in the adolescent congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?
what type of disease is the kind that affects kids congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?
autosomal recessive PKD
what protein is defective in adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?
what type of disease is adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?
autosomal dominant PKD
what is the most common cause of acute tubular necrosis?
what can you see with light microscopy of acute tubular necrosis(tubular injury)?
PCT - dilated tubules and flat epithelium
loss of brush borders and infoldings
what are common causes of acute pyelonephritis?
acute suppurative bacterial infection
what will you find in light microscopy of acute pyelonephritis?
neutrophil infiltration of the renal interstitum and tubules
chronic inflammation and obstruction of the drainging system (calyces, ureters) associated with acute pyelonephritis may result in what?
what does chronic pyelonephritis result in?
what is hydronephrosis/ hydroureters? What can it lead to?
obstruction of the collecting system draining the kidney
maintained pressure in the system can lead to permanent kidney damage
what is one of the principle causes of renal failure?
what does increased tension in the vessels lead to?
thickening of the walls and reduction in the calibre of the vessel
what can you see using light microscopy of htn?
thickened and eosinophilic vessel walls
what are the risks associated with DM in kidneys?
what are the histological changes seen in the kidney with DM?
icrease mesangial matrix (KIMMELSTEIL-WILSON NODULES)
increase thickness of the basement membrane with EM
what is the frequency of renal cell carcinoma
who is at risk for renal cell carcinoma?
males , 60-70 yo, smokers, obesity, htn
where is the common location of renal cell carcinoma?
cortex - renal tubular epithelium
how often is hematuria present with renal cell carcinoma?
50% of cases
what are the symptoms of renal cell carcinoma?
metastases - lung, bone etc.
where is the origin of renal cell carcinoma?
renal tubular epithelial cells (adenocarcinoma)
what are the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma?
what is the growth patterns of renal cell carcinoma?
trabeculae or cordlike or tubular
what kind of cells are present with renal cell carcinoma?
rounded or polygonal with clear or granular cytoplasm
what types of cells are found in papillary carcinoma?
cuboidal or low columnar cells
what types of cells are found in chromophobe carcinoma?
pale eosinophilic cells with perinuclear halo
what is the major cause of renal artery stenosis?
atheromatous plaques - atherosclerosis
what is a less common >1% cause of renal artery stenosis??
what will untreated renal artery stenosis result in?
is renal artery stenosis curable?