Clinical V Renal Flashcards Preview

Histology Post Midterm > Clinical V Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical V Renal Deck (51):
1

what are histological alterations of the filtration mechanism associated with glomerular injury?

hypercellularity
thickening of the BM
hyalinosis and sclerosis

2

what are causes of glomerular kidney disorder?

immunological
toxic or infectious agents

3

what are example of glomerular kidney disorders?

glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy

4

what are some causes of tubular kidney disorders?

toxic
ischemia
mechanical

5

what are some causes of interstitial kidney disorders?

infectious
medication

6

what are examples of vascular kidney disorders?

hypertension
vasculitis

7

what is acute proliferative (post streptococcal Post infectious) glomerular nephritis

inflammation reaction = injury of the capillary wall
there is an escape of RBCs

leads to nephrotic syndrome

8

what are the symptoms associated with nephrotic syndrome?

hematuria
oliguria
HTN
proteinuria
edema

9

where might you find Ag-Ab complexes - electron dense deposits?

subendothelial - circulating, granular
subepithelial - in situ, granular
membranous - in situ, linear
mesangial

10

what occurs with hypercellularity in post streptococcal GN?

endothelial and mesangial cells
infiltration of neutrophils
crescent formation

11

what can you see with immunoflourescence in post streptococcal GN?

GRANULAR deposits of IgG, IgM and complement along BM

12

what can you see using electron micrograph in post streptococcal GN?

subendothelial intramembraneous and subepithelial hump against the GBM

13

what is Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)? What population is it commonly found in? What type of injury?

upper respiratory tract infection
young children and adults
diffuse and global injury

14

what are histological symptoms of Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)

increased mesangial maxtrix and cellularity
EM = electron dense deposits in the mesangium
IF = deposits of IgA (HALLMARK)*

associated with nephrotic syndrome

15

what is nephrotic syndrome?

increase in permeability of the capillary wall to plasma proteins

16

what are characteritstics of the PCT?

resorption
excretion
Mv

17

what is the function of the loop of Henle in relation to the tubules?

create a hypertonic environment surrounding the tubules

18

what are characteristics of the DCT?

macula densa
well developed basal foldings

19

what can cause tubular and interstitial injury?

drugs
iodine containing contrast agents
metals
infections
hypovolemic shock

20

what protein is affected in the adolescent congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

fibroystin

21

what type of disease is the kind that affects kids congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

autosomal recessive PKD

22

what protein is defective in adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

polycystin

23

what type of disease is adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

autosomal dominant PKD

24

what is the most common cause of acute tubular necrosis?

acute ischemia

25

what can you see with light microscopy of acute tubular necrosis(tubular injury)?

PCT - dilated tubules and flat epithelium
loss of brush borders and infoldings

26

what are common causes of acute pyelonephritis?

acute suppurative bacterial infection
BPH
pregnancy

27

what will you find in light microscopy of acute pyelonephritis?

neutrophil infiltration of the renal interstitum and tubules

28

chronic inflammation and obstruction of the drainging system (calyces, ureters) associated with acute pyelonephritis may result in what?

hydronephrosis /hydroureters

29

what does chronic pyelonephritis result in?

vesicourethral reflux
corticomedullary scaring
papillary necrosis

30

what is hydronephrosis/ hydroureters? What can it lead to?

obstruction of the collecting system draining the kidney
maintained pressure in the system can lead to permanent kidney damage

31

what is one of the principle causes of renal failure?

untreated HTN

32

what does increased tension in the vessels lead to?

thickening of the walls and reduction in the calibre of the vessel

33

what can you see using light microscopy of htn?

thickened and eosinophilic vessel walls

34

what are the risks associated with DM in kidneys?

infections
atherosclerosis

35

what are the histological changes seen in the kidney with DM?

icrease mesangial matrix (KIMMELSTEIL-WILSON NODULES)
increase thickness of the basement membrane with EM

36

what is the frequency of renal cell carcinoma

80-85% adults

37

who is at risk for renal cell carcinoma?

males , 60-70 yo, smokers, obesity, htn

38

where is the common location of renal cell carcinoma?

cortex - renal tubular epithelium

39

how often is hematuria present with renal cell carcinoma?

50% of cases

40

what are the symptoms of renal cell carcinoma?

flank pain
ab mass
prolonged fever
polycythemia
paraneoplastic symptoms
metastases - lung, bone etc.

41

where is the origin of renal cell carcinoma?

renal tubular epithelial cells (adenocarcinoma)

42

what are the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma?

clear cell
papillary (chromophil)
chromophobe

43

what is the growth patterns of renal cell carcinoma?

trabeculae or cordlike or tubular

44

what kind of cells are present with renal cell carcinoma?

rounded or polygonal with clear or granular cytoplasm

45

what types of cells are found in papillary carcinoma?

cuboidal or low columnar cells

46

what types of cells are found in chromophobe carcinoma?

pale eosinophilic cells with perinuclear halo

47

what is the major cause of renal artery stenosis?

atheromatous plaques - atherosclerosis

48

what is a less common >1% cause of renal artery stenosis??

htn

49

what will untreated renal artery stenosis result in?

renal atrophy

50

is renal artery stenosis curable?

yes

51

what is the htn effect due to with renal artery stenosis?

increased production of renin and subsequent circulation of angiotensin II