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Histology Post Midterm > Clinical V Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical V Renal Deck (51)
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1

what are histological alterations of the filtration mechanism associated with glomerular injury?

hypercellularity
thickening of the BM
hyalinosis and sclerosis

2

what are causes of glomerular kidney disorder?

immunological
toxic or infectious agents

3

what are example of glomerular kidney disorders?

glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy

4

what are some causes of tubular kidney disorders?

toxic
ischemia
mechanical

5

what are some causes of interstitial kidney disorders?

infectious
medication

6

what are examples of vascular kidney disorders?

hypertension
vasculitis

7

what is acute proliferative (post streptococcal Post infectious) glomerular nephritis

inflammation reaction = injury of the capillary wall
there is an escape of RBCs

leads to nephrotic syndrome

8

what are the symptoms associated with nephrotic syndrome?

hematuria
oliguria
HTN
proteinuria
edema

9

where might you find Ag-Ab complexes - electron dense deposits?

subendothelial - circulating, granular
subepithelial - in situ, granular
membranous - in situ, linear
mesangial

10

what occurs with hypercellularity in post streptococcal GN?

endothelial and mesangial cells
infiltration of neutrophils
crescent formation

11

what can you see with immunoflourescence in post streptococcal GN?

GRANULAR deposits of IgG, IgM and complement along BM

12

what can you see using electron micrograph in post streptococcal GN?

subendothelial intramembraneous and subepithelial hump against the GBM

13

what is Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)? What population is it commonly found in? What type of injury?

upper respiratory tract infection
young children and adults
diffuse and global injury

14

what are histological symptoms of Mesangial proliferative GM (IgA nephropathy)

increased mesangial maxtrix and cellularity
EM = electron dense deposits in the mesangium
IF = deposits of IgA (HALLMARK)*

associated with nephrotic syndrome

15

what is nephrotic syndrome?

increase in permeability of the capillary wall to plasma proteins

16

what are characteritstics of the PCT?

resorption
excretion
Mv

17

what is the function of the loop of Henle in relation to the tubules?

create a hypertonic environment surrounding the tubules

18

what are characteristics of the DCT?

macula densa
well developed basal foldings

19

what can cause tubular and interstitial injury?

drugs
iodine containing contrast agents
metals
infections
hypovolemic shock

20

what protein is affected in the adolescent congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

fibroystin

21

what type of disease is the kind that affects kids congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

autosomal recessive PKD

22

what protein is defective in adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

polycystin

23

what type of disease is adult congenital polycystic disease of the kidney?

autosomal dominant PKD

24

what is the most common cause of acute tubular necrosis?

acute ischemia

25

what can you see with light microscopy of acute tubular necrosis(tubular injury)?

PCT - dilated tubules and flat epithelium
loss of brush borders and infoldings

26

what are common causes of acute pyelonephritis?

acute suppurative bacterial infection
BPH
pregnancy

27

what will you find in light microscopy of acute pyelonephritis?

neutrophil infiltration of the renal interstitum and tubules

28

chronic inflammation and obstruction of the drainging system (calyces, ureters) associated with acute pyelonephritis may result in what?

hydronephrosis /hydroureters

29

what does chronic pyelonephritis result in?

vesicourethral reflux
corticomedullary scaring
papillary necrosis

30

what is hydronephrosis/ hydroureters? What can it lead to?

obstruction of the collecting system draining the kidney
maintained pressure in the system can lead to permanent kidney damage