Clinical Radiology of the Upper Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Radiology of the Upper Limb Deck (34):
1

Sternoclavicular Arthritis

Most common abnormality in SC joint. Joint space is narrowed, joint surfaces are mildly irregular, marrow edema, joint capsule thickened/edematous, mild effusion.

2

Shoulder separation

Affects the AC joint. Is a misnomer because it has nothing to do with the glenohumeral joint.

3

Type 1 shoulder separation

AC joint is not gapped, tear is incomplete

4

Type 2 shoulder separation

AC joint can be abnormally gapped, tear is complete

5

Type 3 shoulder separation

AC joint will have significant gapping, clavicle will be superiorly displaced

6

x-Ray views need in Shoulder dislocation

Y-view or axial view (transverse view)

7

Anterior shoulder dislocation associated fractures

Bankart Fx, Hill-Sachs Fx

8

Bankart fractures

Compression fracture of anterior-inferior glenoid rim, causing anterior shoulder instability

9

Hill-Sachs fractures

Compression fracture of posterior-superior humeral head

10

Posterior shoulder dislocated image

Light-bulb image. Often less overlapping of humeral head and glenoid fossa

11

Types of Acromial down-sloping

Type 1: normal
Type 2: anterior down-sloping from middle third
Type 3: Anterior down-sloping from the anterior third

12

Types of Acromial Lateral down-sloping

Type A: normal (up-sloping or flat)
Type B: down-sloping laterally

13

External Subacromial Impingement

The subacromial bursa is pushed on/inflammed. Very common cause of shoulder pain

14

Acrominon enthesiophyte

A spurring and ligament thickening where the coracoacromial ligament attaches

15

Os Acromiale

Secondary ossification center of acromion never fuses with the rest of the bone. The Os can hinge inferiorly, causing shoulder impingement.

16

Acromioclavicular arthrosis

Joint enlarges in an inferior direction

17

Adhesive capsulitis

aka Frozen shoulder syndrome. inflammation or scarring of the shoulder joint capsule limiting active and passive shoulder movement. Little old ladies "cheat" when doing active testing

18

Proximal humerus fracture classification type and sites

Neer Classification sites: anatomic neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, surgical neck

19

How to name a proximal humerus fracture

one part: no displacement
two part: 1 site is displaced/angulated
three part: 2 sites are displaced/angulated

20

Lateral epicondylitis

aka Tennis elbow. Cause: strain/degeneration of common extensor tendon

21

Medial epicondylitis

aka Golfer's elbow. Cause: strain/degeneration of common flexor tendon

22

Elbow Fractures

most common in ages 3-10. Look for alignment of humeral head with capitulum! Seeing posterior fat pad = supracondylar fracture. Too prominent of a anterior fat pad is another sign of fx

23

Sail Sign

Too prominent of an anterior arm fat pad around the elbow that is a sign of a supracondylar fracture

24

What to look for in "normal" elbow x-rays

Anterior margin of humerus aligns with middle 3rd of capitulum. Small anterior fat pad is normal. Any visibility of posterior fat pad is abnormal

25

Elbow dislocation

3rd most common dislocated joint. Most often posterior dislocation. Usually collateral ligaments rupture.

26

Strain

Injury of tendon or muscle

27

Sprain

injury of ligament

28

Game Keeper's Thumb

injury of ulnar collateral ligament of the MCP joint of the thumb

29

Distal radius fracture

Common in the elderly. Just describe the features of the fracture

30

Colle's fracture

Distal radial fracture in which the distal portion of the radius points dorsally

31

Scaphoid fracture

Most common carpal bone to fracture. Usually not visible on initial radiograph. Necrosis can occur if not fixed. Pain in the snuffbox

32

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Numbness/pain in the distribution of the medial nerve.

33

Tinel's sign

Light tapping of median nerve reproduces reported pain

34

Phalen's test

Hyperflexing the wrists reproduces reported pain