Basic Concepts Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Basic Concepts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Concepts Deck (49):
1

Coronal plane

divides the anterior and posterior

2

Sagittal plane

Divides the left from right side

3

Transverse plane

Divides superior from inferior

4

Palmer

anterior hand (palm)

5

Dorsal

posterior hand

6

Ipsilateral

same side as structure

7

Contralateral

opposite side of a structure

8

Axial skeletal system

Cranium, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum

9

Appendicular system

limbs and girdles

10

Periosteum

_Connective tissue covering the external bone surface _Tendons of muscles intermingle with this tissue to unite muscles to the bones

11

Suture joint

_Fibrous joint _Between bones of the skull

12

Syndesmosis

_Fibrous joint _Bones connected by a sheet of dense connective tissue

13

Gomphosis

_Fibrous joint _Tooth root joined by cartilage, no cavity present

14

Synchondrosis

_joined by hyaline cartilage _i.e. growth plates, costochondral junction

15

Symphysis

_joined by fibrocartilage _i.e. intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis

16

Synovial joints

_fluid-filled joint cavity _increases flexibility b/t hyaline covered articular surfaces

17

Diarthoses

Permitting free motion in a joint (all synovial joints)

18

Parts of a synovial joint

_Articular cartilage _Joint cavity _Articular capsule _Synovial fluid _Ligaments _Articular discs

19

Articular cartilage

Mainly hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bone heads

20

Joint cavity

Fluid filled space between articular surfaces

21

Articular capsule

Outer layer of fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periosteum of related bones/inner synovial membrane

22

Synovial fluid

Viscous fluid produced by synovial membranes

23

Extracapsular ligament

Ligament that supports the capsule

24

Intracapsular ligament

Ligament that supports the inside of the capsule

25

Articular discs

_Improve articular surface interactions _Absorb forces

26

Plane joint

_2 flat surfaces _grinding/sliding movements

27

Hinge joint

_Cylinder end fits into a trough end _Best for uniaxial movement

28

Pivot joint

_Cylinder end fits into a ring of bone with fibrous support tissue _Allows for rotation _Atlantoaxial joint

29

Condyloid joint

_ Egg shaped surface with concave surface _ Biaxial movements of flexion/extension & abduction/adduction

30

Saddle joint

_Saddle-shaped convex & concave surfaces _Biaxial movements

31

Ball and Socket joint

Sphere in a concave socket yielding multiaxial movement

32

Arterial anastomosis

Matrix of interconnected arteries that allow for continual blood flow when joint is in extreme positions

33

Hilton's Law

Joint is innervated by the branch of nerves that innervates the muscle that moves that joint

34

Superficial fascia

_Deep to the dermis _Allows for freer movement of skin over deeper structures

35

Deep fascia

_Dense,connective tissue found deep to the superficial fascia _Intermuscular septa to compartmentalize similarly functioning/innervated muscle groups _Extensions form muscle bundles

36

Retinacula

Thickened deep fascia near joints that act as pulleys for tendons

37

Skeletal muscle

Voluntary, striated

38

Smooth muscle

Involuntary, non-striated

39

Cardiac muscle

Involuntary, branched/striated

40

Tendons

Connect muscle to bone

41

Tendon sheath

Serous membrane that encloses a tendon with synovial fluid on the inside to reduce friction

42

Aponeurosis

Wide, flattened tendinous sheet that forms attaching structure for various muscle groups

43

Agonist

Main muscle that produces movement

44

Antagonist

Muscle that opposes the primary mover to create smooth movement

45

Fixator

Isometrically contracts to stabilize the origin of the primary mover

46

Synergist

Assists the primary mover either by providing similar forces or adjusts the system to modify the action

47

Tributaries

Where veins join together

48

Afferent/Sensory NS

Bring info to the CNS (Afferent accesses CNS)

49

Efferent/motor

Takes info away from the CNS (Efferent exits CNS)