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Anatomy > Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larynx Deck (71):
1

What vertebral body levels is the larynx located at?

C3-C6

2

What is lateral to the larynx?

Carotid sheaths and thyroid glands

3

3 functions of the larynx

Passage of air to the respiratory tract, Sphincter to close off RT during swallowing, produce phonation

4

What is the major type of cartilage in the larynx?

Hyaline cartilage

5

What bone is connected to the larynx by ligaments and membranes

Hyoid bone

6

Largest laryngeal cartilage

Thyroid cartilage

7

What is found directly above the laryngeal prominence?

Superior thryoid notch

8

Projections off of the thyroid cartilage

Cornuas (superior and inferior)

9

Ridge on the posterolateral sides of the laminae for the constrictor muscle attachments

Oblique line

10

Only cartilage that completely encircles the airway

Cricoid cartilage

11

Anterior portion of the cricoid cartilage

Arch

12

What does the lamina of the cricoid cartilage articulate with?

Arytenoid cartilage

13

Paired set of cartilages posterior to the larynx that sit atop the lamina of the cricoid

Arytenoid cartilage

14

Posterolateral projection of the arytenoid cartilage

Muscular process

15

Paired set of cartilages that sit atop of the apices of the arytenoid cartilages

Corniculate cartilages

16

Attaches the epiglottic cartilage to the thyroid cartilage lamina

Inferior stalk

17

Articulation of the inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage and lamina of the cricoid cart

Cricothyroid joints

18

What happens when the thyroid cartilage tilts anteriorly at the joint?

Vocal cords are tensed

19

What happens when the thyroid cartilage is tilted posteriorly?

Vocal cords are loosened

20

Articulation of the arytenoid cartilages and the lamina of the cricoid cartilage

Cricoarytenoid joints

21

Movement of the arytenoid cartilages

Slide tranversely/pivot on cricoid cartilage to abduct/adduct the vocal folds

22

Extrinstic ligaments of the larynx

Thyrohyoid membrane, cricotracheal ligament, hyoepiglottic ligament

23

Connects the superior border of the thyroid cartilage to the body and greater horns of the hyoid bone

Thyrohyoid membrane

24

Thickening of thyrohyoid membrane on midline

Median thyrohyoid ligament

25

Thickening of thyrohyoid membrane at the posterior edges

Lateral thyrohyoid ligaments

26

What passes thru the thyrohyoid membrane?

Superior laryngeal vessels and internal laryngeal nerve

27

Attaches inferior surface of cricoid cartilage to upper border of 1st tracheal ring

Cricotracheal ligament

28

Ligament from the anterior midline of the epiglottis to the body of the hyoid bone

Hyoepiglottic ligament

29

Intrinsic ligaments of the larynx

Thyroepiglottic ligament, conus elasticus, quadraangular ligament

30

Attaches stalk of epiglottic cartilage to thyroid cartilage

Thyroepiglottic ligament

31

Membrane from the superior surface of the cricoid cartilage that projects superomedially inside the thyroid cartilage

Conus elasticus

32

Forms the vocal ligaments

Conus elasticus

33

Thickened anterior portion of the conus elasticus

Median cricothyroid ligament

34

Thin submucosal connective tissue that supports the aryepiglottic fold

Quadrangular ligament

35

Superior margin of the quadrangular ligament

Aryepiglottic ligament

36

Inferior margin of the quadrangular ligament

Vestibular ligament

37

Where does the vestibular ligament attach?

Below the apex of the arytenoid cartilage to they thyroid cartilage, above the vocal ligament

38

Orientation of the laryngeal inlet

Obliquely between epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages, along the aryepiglottic fold

39

Space between the aryepiglottic folds

Vestibule

40

What is below the vestibule?

vestibular folds. Aka false vocal cords

41

Space between the vestibular folds

Rima vestibuli

42

Space between vestibular/vocal folds

Laryngeal ventricle

43

True vocal cords

Vocal fold

44

Space inferior to vocal folds but superior to trachea

Infraglottic space

45

Contents of the vocal folds

Vocal ligament, vocalis muscle, and mucosa

46

Opening between vocal folds

Rima glottidis

47

Action of posterior crioarytenoid muscle

Causes adduction of muscular processes, making arytenoid c. externally rotate, thus aBducting the vocal folds

48

Action of lateral crioarytenoid muscle

aBduction of muscular processes, making arytenoid c. internally rotate, aDducting the vocal folds

49

Action of transverse arytenoid muscle

aDduction of vocal folds via translation

50

Action of Oblique arytenoid muscle

Aids in aDduction of vocal folds via translation

51

Is the continuation of the oblique arytenoid in the aryepiglottic folds

Aryepiglottic muscle

52

Action of cricothyroid muscle

Acts via cricothyroid cartilage, causing thyroid cartilage to rotate anteriorly, thus stretching/tensing vocal folds (raises pitch of voice)

53

Action of thyroarytenoid muscle

Acts via cricoarytenoid joint, pulling arytenoid c. anteriorly, thus relaxing vocal folds (lowers pitch of voice)

54

Action of vocalis muscle

Fine tunes the tension on vocal folds. Is used in whispering

55

Acts as a sphincter for the auditus

Thyroepiglottic

56

Supplies blood to upper part of larynx

Superior laryngeal a. Typically a branch from superior thyroid a (off of ECA)

57

Blood supply to lower part of larynx

Inferior laryngeal a. Off of inferior thyroid a. (off of thyrocervical via subclavian)

58

Vessel that passes deep to inferior border of inferior pharyngeal constrictor/enters near cricothyroid joint

Inferior laryngeal a. Off of inferior thyroid a. (off of thyrocervical via subclavian)

59

Venous supply to larynx

Superior/inferior laryngeal vein( drains to respective thyroid vein then IJV)

60

Lymph in the supraglottic area

Superior deep cervical lymph nodes

61

Where does the infroglottic lymph drain to?

Pretracheal/paratracheal lymph nodes, then to inferior deep cervical lymph nodes

62

What provides sensory to larynx?

Vagus

63

Supplies the mucosa of the aditus to vocal cords

Internal laryngeal nerves via superior laryngeal nerve

64

Innervates mucosa below vocal cords

Recurrent laryngeal nerves

65

Innervates cricothyroid muscle

External laryngeal nerve

66

Innervates all muscles of larynx except cricothyroid

recurrent laryngeal nerves

67

When does the inferior laryngeal nerve arise?

Is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, then changes to inferior near the cricothyroid joint

68

Internal laryngeal nerve damage

Desensitiation of superior larynx, dif swallowing/chocking

69

External laryngeal nerve damage

Paralyzes cricothyroid muscle (can't tense vocal lig) so weak voice/lower pitch/monotone voice

70

Inferior laryngeal nerve damage

Vocal fold paralysis. Unilateral: can compensate. Bilaterally:no voice and diff breathing

71

Semon's law

aBuctors of vocal cords affected more than aDductors, so breathy/bedroom voice