Vertebrae Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Vertebrae > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebrae Deck (52):
1

Number of vertebrae in each portion of the vertebrae

_Cervical: 7 _Thoracic: 12 _Lumbar: 5 _Sacral: 5 fused _Coccygeal: 3-4

2

Pedicles

Base of the vertebral arch, attaches to the body

3

Laminae

Broad, thin plates that are connected to pedicles and spinous process

4

Transverse process

Project laterally from the pedicle/lamina junction

5

Spinous process

projects posteriorly from the junction of the lamina

6

Superior articular process

Superior projection near the pedicle lamina junction

7

Inferior articular process

Inferior projection from the lamina

8

Transverse foramina

Holes found in the transverse presses of the cervical vertebrae

9

Costal Facets

_2 on the body/pedicle junction, 1 on the transverse process _Found only on the thoracic vertebrae

10

Mammillary

On the posterior tip of the superior articular processes of the lumbar vertebrae

11

Sacral Promontory

Most superior/anterior point/edge of S1 vertebrae

12

Anterior/posterior sacral foramina

Separate holes in the sacrum that are in continuity with each other via a canal

13

Median sacral crest

Ridge with 4 tubercles posterior

14

Sacral Canal

Anterior to the median sacral crest

15

Sacral Hiatus

Lack of fusion of the 5th sacral vertebrae, which allows for an inferior opening of the canal

16

Auricular surface

_Ear-shaped surface on the lateral surface of the sacrum _Articulates with the pelvis

17

Cornua

_Small horned coccygeal vertebra _Articulates with the sacrum

18

Atlas

_C1 _No body, no spinous process _Anterior/posterior arches with anterior/posterior tubercles

19

Axis

_C2 _has a Dens (pivot joint that articulates with the atlas)

20

Vertebra Prominens

C7 that has a long spinal process that is prominent

21

Primary Curvatures

_Concave anteriorly _First curvature seen in embryos/fetuses

22

Secondary Curvatures

_Concave posteriorly _Develop in early childhood

23

Intervertebral discs

_Fibrocartilaginous discs fused with hyaline cartilage _Are Symphyses b/t vertebrae _First is b/t C2/3, last b/t L5/S1

24

Annulus Fibrosus

Outer, tough fibrocartilagenous ring of intervertebral disc with criss-crossed fibers to limit vertebral rotation

25

Nucleus pulposus

_Soft, inner part of intervertebral disc _Absorbs water when relaxed, loses water when compressed

26

Uncovertebral Joints (of Luschka)

_Small cavities in the cervical intervertebral disc (appear around 10 y/o) _Occur b/t the unicate process of vertebrae

27

Unicate Process

Process that comes off of the cervical vertebral body

28

Facet Joints

_Aka Zygapophysial joints _Synovial joints b/t articular surfaces _Orientation determines ROM in joints _innervated by medial branches of posterior rami of spinal nerves (2 adj nerves per joint)

29

Costovertebral joints

_T2-T8 articulate with 2 pairs of ribs _3 points of articulation: head of rib (2 points on upper and lower demifacets), Tubercle of rib (1 point on transverse process of vertebra)

30

Sacroiliac joints

_Synovial joint b/t auricular surface on the sacrum and ilium _Transfers weight from the vertebral column to lower limb

31

Anterior longitudinal Ligament

_C1-sacrum _Limits extension of vertebral column

32

Posterior longitudinal ligament

_Posterior surface of vertebrae and intervertebral discs, but inside the vertebral canal _Narrows over V. bodies and widens over the IV discs throughout T and L _Does not cover all of the posterolateral portion of the IV discs, so herniation can occur _Limits flexion

33

Ligament Flava

_C2-sacrum: interconnect laminae of adjacent vertebrae _highly elastic and bilateral _Resists separation b/t laminae during flexion and lat flexion and helps in restoring an erect posture post movements

34

Transverse ligaments

_C1-sacrum: interconnect adjacent transverse processes _Often intertwined with intertransversarii muscles _Resists lateral flexion

35

Interspinous ligaments

_C2-sacrum: between spinous processes _Resists flexion and rotation

36

Supraspinous ligament

_C7-Sacrum _Attaches tips of spinous ligaments _Changes into the ligamentum nuchae from occipital protuberance to C7 _resists flexion and rotation

37

Ligamentum Nuchae

Expanded supraspinous ligament from C7 to Occipital protuberance

38

Facet joint capsules

_Synovial joints _Capsule limits motion of joints, particularly rotation

39

Vertebral Arterial blood supply

_Initial branches on anterolateral surfaces _Branches into periosteal and Equatorial

40

Periosteal arterial blood supply

Supplies the periosteum

41

Equatorial aterial blood supply

Supplies the outer layer of bone

42

Posterior branch of aterial blood supply

Provide the periosteal branch and nutrient branches to the V arch elements

43

Spinal arteries

_Enter thru the IV foramina _Provide branches to spinal cord/meninges _Nutrient arteries travel to the core of the vertebral bodies

44

Internal vertebral plexus of veins

Initial drainage of venous blood

45

External vertebral plexus of veins

Connects internal to segmental vein system

46

Vertebral plexus connections

All plexuses connect to cranial dural sinuses and venous plexus in the pelvis (is a valveless system)

47

Recurrent meningeal branches of spinal nerves

_Innervates the vertebral column on each side _Connects periosteum, annul fibrosi of IV discs, ligaments to meninges

48

Proprioception

Body position by stretching/slackening of muscles and ligaments

49

Associated factors with herniation

_more anterior positioning of nucleus pulpous _Annulus fibrosis is thinner posteriorly _Increased load on column (flexion) that compresses anteriorly _Lack of ligament support on the posterolateral surface of discs

50

Lumbago

Shifts in the nucleus pulpous causes unequal force on joints causing violent muscle spams

51

Radiculopathy

Compression of a near by nerve from herniation

52

Siactica

Several roots contributing to the sciatic nerve are compressed