Flashcards in Lower Extremity Vasculature Deck (41):
Femoral Triangle Boundaries
Inguinal ligament (superior). Adductor Longus (Medial). Sartorius Muscle (Lateral). Pectineus/adductor longus/Iliopsoas (Floor). Fascia Lata (Roof).
Contents of Femoral Triangle
Contents of femoral sheath
Contents of femoral canal
What is the superior border of the femoral artery?
The inguinal ligament (superior is the external iliac artery)
Path of the femoral artery
Becomes femoral below the inguinal ligament, runs thru the anterior compartment of the thigh, runs thru the femoral triangle, thru the adductor canal, into the popliteal fossa, changing into the popliteal artery.
What branches of the femoral artery supply the cutaneous regions of the upper thigh, lower abdomen, and perineum?
Superficial circumflex iliac A. Superficial epigastric A. Superficial external pudendal A. Deep External pudendal A.
What path does the deep artery of the thigh take?
Is parallel, but posterior to femoral artery. Runs between pectineus and adductor longus, penetrates adductor magnus to anastamose with branches of the popliteal artery behind the knee.
Path of Media Circumflex Femoral Artery
Passes posteriomedially around the shaft of the femur between pectineous and iliopsoas, then between obturator externus and adductor brevis muscles. Small branch enters hip joint to supply femur head/neck then anastamoses with acetabular branch of obturator artery/inferior gluteal artery/1st perforating artery/lateral circumflex femoral artery
Path/Brances of Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery
Arises from deep artery of the thigh, passes laterally deep to the sartorius and rectus femoris. Gives rise to Ascending, Transverse, and Descending branches.
Ascending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Ascends deep to tensor fascia latae. Anastamoses with superior gluteal artery/branch of medial circumflex femoral artery. Supplies head/neck of femur
Transverse branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Passes deep to rectus femoris muscle. Anastamoses with medial circumflex femoral artery/inferior gluteal artery/1st perforating artery to form cruciate anastomoses around the hip
Descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery
Passes deep to rectus femoris. Anastomoses with medial circumflex femoral artery. Passes inferiorly on vastus intermedius to anastomose with genicular arteries at the knee
Branch from deep artery of the thigh. All branches penetrate the adductor magnus to supply the posterior compartment of the thigh. Have both ascending and descending branches that anastomose
Internal Iliac Artery: Arises from where and usual divisions
Arises from common iliac artery. Commonly divides into anterior and posterior divisions
Anterior division of Internal Iliac Artery branches
Umbilical, Obturator, Inferior vesical/vaginal, Middle rectal, Internal pudendal, Inferior Gluteal
Is only present en utero. Turns into the medial umbilical ligament
Superior Vesicular Artery
Arises from inferior surface of umbilical artery. Descends to supply the supolateral bladder. Can also supply ductus deferens in males
Enters medial compartment of thigh via obturator canal. Bifurcates into anterior/posterior. Anastomoses with inferior gluteal artery/medial circ femoral artery. Acetabular branch comes off to supply fovea of head of femur
Anterior branch of obturator artery
Supplies pectineus, obturator externus, adductor muscles, gracilis
Posterior branch of obturator artery
Supplies some deep gluteal muscles
Inferior Vesical Artery/Vaginal Artery
Courses towards fundus of bladder. Supplies bladder, seminal vesicles, and prostate
Middle Rectal Artery
Courses medially to supply the rectum. Anastomoses with superior rectal/inferior rectal
Internal Pudendal Artery
Passes thru greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis muscle, passes lesser sciatic foramen to enter perineum (main artery). Supplies erectile tissue of clitoris and penis
Inferior Gluteal Artery
Passes b/t anterior rami of S1/2 OR S2/3. Leaves pelvic cavity via greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis. Large/terminal branch of anterior trunk of internal iliac artery
Posterior Division of Internal Iliac Artery Branches
Iliolumbar, Lateral Sacral, Superior Gluteal
Supplies posterior abdominal wall, psoas, quadratus lumborum, cauda equine, iliac fossa
Lateral Sacral Arteries
Runs along pelvic wall, gives rise to branches that pass anterior to sacral foramina
Superior Gluteal Artery
Largest branch of internal iliac artery. Terminal continuation of posterior trunk. Runs posteriorly, passing thru lumbosacral trunk/anterior ramus S1, enters gluteal region via greater sciatic foramen
Fascial compartment deep to sartorius muscle. Descends from apex of femoral triangle, medially down thigh, posteriorly thru aperature in adductor magnus, into popliteal fossa. Contains femoral artery/vein and 2 branches of femoral nerve
Popliteal Fossa Contents
Popliteal artery/vein, Tibial nerve, common fibular nerve, Plantaris/popliteus muscles, popliteal lymph nodes
Popliteal artery pathway
Continuation of femoral artery, passes from adductor canal, thru hiatius, divides into anterior/posterior tibial arteries.
Extends into the adductor hiatus to become femoral vein, receives small saphenous vein
Boundaries of popliteal Fossa
Superolateral: biceps femoris. Superomedial: semitendinosus and semimembranosus. Interior: gastrocneumius heads (lateral/medial). Posterior: Popliteal fascia/skin. Anterior: Femur, joint capsule, tibia.
Branches of popliteal arteries. Form arterial anastomoses around the knee joint.
Posterior Tibial Artery
Larger of the 2 popliteal artery branches. Supplies posterior/lateral compartments of the leg. Distal between superficial and deep compartments of posterior leg. Passes thru tarsal tunnel behind medial malleolus into the sole of the foot
Arises from posterior tibial artery distal to inferior border of popliteus muscle. Runs between tibilais posterior and flexor hallucis.
Medial Plantar Artery
Runs under abductor hallucis, then b/t it and flexor digitorum brevis.
Anterior Tibial Artery
Horizontal portion of bifurcation of popliteal artery. Passes thru IO membrane to run anteriorly b/t tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus. Becomes dorsalis pedis artery in the foot
Small Saphenous Vein
Formed posterior to lateral malleolus, ascends posteriorly up the leg.