CNA and Autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

Inflammation and Immunity > CNA and Autoimmunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNA and Autoimmunity Deck (19):
1

What antibody is elevated in MS

IgG

2

Where is this antibody formed

In the CSF

3

What is the unique about this antobody

It is oligoclonal and the cells are making this IgG inside the brain

4

How is the prognosis of the disease if this antibody is present

Presence of oligoclonal IgG indicated a poor prognosis

5

What does it mean when an antibody is oligoclonal

It is made by many different B cell clones

6

How does SPE results differ for polyclonal, oligoclonal and monoclonal

SPE results yield a thick band for serum albumin and then there are alpha and beta bands. For monoclonal, we will see one thick band in the gamma region, for oligoclonal we may see 2 or 3 thick bands and for polyclonal we will see a thick gamma region such that we cant differentiate one band from the other.

MS has an oligoclonal appearance on SPE

7

What band appearence is observed in an infection

Oligoclonal

8

What band appearence is in autoimmunity

Oligoclonal

9

What is the ratio of the light chains in Ig

Kappa to lamda is 3:1

10

Give an example of neoplasm that is example of monoclonal gammopathies

Multiple Myeloma

11

Explain multiple myeloma

It is a monoclonal malignancy, one of the plasma cells in the bone marrow starts to divide aberrantly. The plasma cells make excessive same type of antibody. The cells pack up in the bone marrow to such an extent that other HSC processes are severly affected, the bone starts degrading and one of the clinical presentations of Multiple myeloma is bone fracture

12

What does it mean if the IgG to albumin ratio is elevated in the CSF

That means the IgG is being made in the brain as it is coming from the CNS

13

Expalin the causes of the lesions in the brain in MS

Follicles form in the brain which causes lesions to form right next to the follicles. During early onset of MS follicles are in greater number than the lesions

14

Explain the pathogenesis of MS

MS targets a range of antigens found in the brain, the most common one being myelin basic protein. APC cells present the antigen to T cells which causes differentiation into Th1 cells. Th1 cells at the brain make cytokines to activate macrophages which then causes destruction of myelin sheaths. This releases more antigens and DAMPS which are then presented by a different set of APCs which further recruit more Th1 cells. This cycle keeps going on. This phenomena is called epitope spreading.

15

What is the clinical significance of epitope spreading

Different patients has present with very different symptoms

16

What are the roles of B cells in MS

1. Antigen presentation
2. They make follicles in the brain
3. Make antibodies
4. Release cytokines
5. Antibodies can then in turn activate complement

17

What is the treatment of MS

Steroids, a lot of steroids - methylprednisolone

18

What another treatment of MS and what are the functions of the drug

Administering IFNbeta
1. Increases production of IL-10 and TGFbea
2. Increases the apoptosis of T cells
3. Increases the production of Reg T Cells.

19

What kind of hypersensitivity is vasculitis

Type 3