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Flashcards in CNS N27 Deck (63)
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31

Methylxanthenes (caffeine)

many effects on postsynaptic cell (increased cAMP)

32

Neurotransmitter criteria

present in presynaptic cell, release upon stimulation, stimulation of nerve has consistent effect, antagonists must block the effects, means of terminating action of agent

33

Neurotransmitter: Catecholamines

Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine

34

Neurotransmitter: Indolamines

serotonin

35

Neurotransmitter: Amino acids

GABA, glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid

36

Neurotransmitter: AcH and histamine

acetylcholine and histamine

37

Neurotransmitter: Opioid Peptides

met enkephalin, leu enkephalin, beta-endorphin, dynorphin

38

Miscellaneous Neurotransmitters

Substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (CCK)

39

Neuromodulator

influences neuronal function but is not considered a neurotransmitter (prostaglandins, peptides)

40

Neurohormones

released from neurons and act as endocrine hormones (beta-endorphin)

41

Acetylcholine receptors

Nicotinic and muscarinic

42

Acetylcholine locations

CNS, preganglionic ANS, postganglionic PSN

43

Dopamine receptors

D1-D5

44

Dopamine locations

brainstem, coritcal, limbic, extrapyramidal, and endocrine areas

45

Serotonin receptors

5-HT1 - 5-HT3

46

Serotonin location

pons, midbrain, reticular formation

47

function of Acetylcholine

learning, memory, ANS

48

Function of Dopamine

complex thought, motor function, regulation, reward mechanism, mood

49

Function of Serotonin

Sleep-wake cycle, feeding, sensory processing, mood

50

Chronic use of drugs leads to 2 things

drug tolerance and drug dependence

51

Drug tolerance

decreased sensitivity to drug

52

Pharmacokinetic (drug dispositional) tolerance

induction of enzymes that metabolize the drug

53

Pharmacodynamic tolerance

changes in sensitivity to dugs due to change sin the number of receptors or changes in the sensitivity of the receptor-effector mechanism

54

Drug Dependance

Physiological changes in the body that occur with drug use, so that when the drug is stopped physical withdrawal signs occur

55

Drug Addiction

drug use interferes with life

56

Physical and Psychological dependence

Once believed to be separate, but now believed to be interrelated

57

Physical Dependence

physiological adaptation to chronic drug exposure (tolerance also occurs (pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics))

58

Cross dependence

use of a lesser drug to prevent withdrawal symptoms from a more severe drug

59

Cross tolerance

tolerance to 1 drug may cause tolerance to another drug to increase

60

Sympathomimetic effects

drugs may affect CNS and periphery; stimulation of NE in CNS will also cause STIMULUATION of NE in the SNS