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Flashcards in CNS Trauma Deck (19):
1

Most Common/Important Event Post Severe TBI

Brain edema

2

Edema Progression

Begins as cytotoxic (intracellular) and progresses to vasogenic (EC, w/in 24 hours)

3

Cell Swelling

Astrocytes swell the most (cytotoxic), leading to breakdown of BBB (vasogenic)

4

Open Head Injury

Penetrating injury w/ depressed/displacing skull fracture, usually w/ laceration of dura

5

Treatments for Cytotoxic vs. Vasogenic

Osmotic agents to remove H2O vs. steroids

6

Closed Head Injury

No fracture or only linear fracture

7

Physical Mech/Anatomical Problems of Closed Head Injuries (2)

Higher mass of brain vs. skull so move/accelerate at different rates
Skull inside is rough and has ridges that can work like knives

8

4 Types of Lesions

Concussion (transient loss of consciousness)
Contusion (bruise - coup and countrecoup)
Laceration (tissue torn/disrupted)
Hemorrhage

9

Coup vs. Countrecoup Lesions

Side of blow, accelerating vs. opposite side, deccelerating

10

Plaque Jaune

Yellow plaques - when contusions heal w/ some pigment

11

Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)

Very severe brain injury from very violent episodes like car wrecks

12

3 Signs of DAI (1 gross, 2 histological)

Contusion on corpus callosum. Cortex might look fine
Spheroids on silver stain
Amyloid Precursor Prot (APP), like AD

13

Chronic Lesion DAI

Coma

14

Subdural Hematoma

From bridging veins on cortex initially, then granulation tissue encapsulates and its small veins can leak intermittently causing same effect as tumor. Between dura and arachnoid

15

4 People at Risk for Subdural Hematomas

Elderly
Alcoholics
Epileptics
Pts on Anticoagulants

16

5 Long Term Complications of TBI/CTE

Epilepsy, ALS, parkinsonism, deposition of tau/TDP-43, dementia pugilistica (punch-drunk)

17

Most Common Spinal Cord Injury Location (SCI)

Cervical, bc most flexible

18

3 Features of Human SCI

Spinal Shock - like its form of concussion, temporary paralysis
Lesions often small/multiple
Rare to find complete transections - hope for regen someday

19

Big Complicating Factor of SCI

Almost always have laceration of dura which has shitload of fibroplasts -> connective tissue scarring which is disastrous and impossible to regen from