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Flashcards in Pediatric Diseases Deck (14):
1

Germinal Matrix

Where neurons divide and migrate from

2

4 Kinds of Neural Tube Defects

Anencephaly - loss of cerebral hemisphere
Meningocele - meninges protrude
Meningoencephalocele - brain protrudes too
Meningomyelocele - spinal cord too

3

Effect of Congenital Hydrocephalus

White matter gets compressed, cortex stays relatively normal

4

2 Probable Causes of Arnold Chiari Malformations

Lumbar tethering of spinal cord
Overgrowth of pons

5

Dandy-Walker Malformation

Absence of posterior fossa structures, like posterior vermis. Get massive hydrocephalus w/ enlargement of fourth ventricle from posterior fossa "cyst"

6

Holoprosencephaly

Single cerebral hemisphere (holosphere) and 1 large lateral ventricle. Can be from variety of factors, but get significant midline facial defect w/ trisomy 13

7

Lissencephaly

"smooth brain" from neuronal migration disorder w/ absent or reduced gyri and "double layered" large cortex. Also w/ characteristic seizure pattern

8

Cause of Lissencephaly (and important point)

By single gene mut in Lis1 or Doublecortin but APPEARANCE SAME IN EACH

9

3 Perinatal Disorders

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage
Periventricular Leukoencephalopathy
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

10

Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

Immature bvs in GM/lack of glial structures/elevated R heaert failure due to resp insufficiency can cause. More likely the earlier baby is born bc will have more germinal matrix

11

4 Grades of Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

I: Within GM
II: Ventricular extension, mild
III: Massive ventricular extension, expanding them
IV: Intraparenchymal extension

12

Periventricular Leukoencephalopathy

Necrosis in periventricular white matter, often w/ hypoxia-ischemia on border zones (most vulnerable). Premies also more vulnerable

13

Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Often subcortical damage/ponto-subicular necrosis related to perinatal asphyxia (cord wrapped around neck) so no relationship to gestational age

14

Cerebral Palsy

Fixed neurological deficit related to perinatal injury. Symptoms vary according to location. Can be from PVL, HIE, cerebral infarct, etc