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Flashcards in Cognitive Enhancers Deck (11):
1

Amphetamines

-Pyschostimulant
-Immediate release (Dexedrine)
-Sustaine release (Adderall)
-Enhances DA release and blocks reuptake (methylphenidate and d-amphetamine)
-Enhances NE release (d,l-amphetamine i.e. Adderall XR)

2

Methylphenidate

-Psychostimulant
-Immediate release (Ritalin)
-Sustained-release (concerts and metadate CD)
-Enhances DA release and blocks reuptake

3

Atomoxetine

-Highly selective NE reuptake inhibitor
-Elevates DA in prefrontal cortex (but not in nucleus accumbens or striatum)
-Improves working memory by increase NE
*ONLY FIRST LINE ADHD MED WITH NO ABUSE POTENTIAL; thus only drug approved to treat adult ADHD

4

Galanatamine (Razadyne)

-Inhibits AChE
-Stimulates nicotinic cholinergic neurons to release more stored ACh
-Can increase risk of stomach ulcers, similar to other cholinesterase inhibitors (use NSAIDS with great caution)

5

Rivastigmine (Exelon)

-Inhibits both AChE and BuChE
-Administered twice daily
-Causes more GI problems and muscle weakness than other cholinesterase inhibitors

6

Tacrine (Cognex)

-Anti-cholinesterase
-Short half life
-Many drug interactions
-2nd line therapy for AD
-May cause liver damage

7

Memantine

- Useful in patients with moderate to severe AD
-Antagonist at the NMDA subtype of glutamate
-Found to help patients in later stages of the disease to maintain additional independence
-Most common adverse effects of memantine are dizziness, headache, constipation, and confusion

8

Ginko biloba

-May have modest benefit for AD patients
-Serious side effects (bleeding, seizures, coma) have been reported with commercial pharmaceutical grade ginkgo biloba preparations

9

Modafinil (Eugeroic)

-Wakefulness enhancer
-Questionable mech of action. Increased release of NE and DA, elevates hypothalamic histamine levels
*Potential abuse in college students

10

Armodafinl

-Wakefulness enhancer
-Questionable mech of action. Increased release of NE and DA, elevates hypothalamic histamine levels

11

Why do stimulants work to treat ADHD?

-Areas of the prefrontal and limbic cortex involved with focusing and maintaining attention and prioritizing behaviors are activated by psychostimulants at low (therapeutic) doses
-Areas of the brain involved in motor activity and arousal get activated at higher (euphoric or toxic) doses