Flashcards in Combank 1 Deck (45):
What is also known as croup, is common in children <4 and has a classic seal life barky cough?
What causes atypical pneumonia, insidious onset of low grade fever, nonproductive cough, and diffuse interstitial infiltrates on plain film chest radiographs?
Is Bell's Palsy a LMN lesion or a UMN lesion?
LMN - the forehead is classically involved
Internal rotation of the temporal bone may result in what?
Bell's palsy - can lead patient to complain of tinnitus, vertigo and high pitched ringing
Acute somatic dysfunctions are characterized by ....
swelling, warmth, moisture, fullness, bogginess, hypertonic muscles, edema, tension, erythema, and acute tenderness
Chronic somatic dysfunctions present with
cool, dry, thickened skin, decreased muscle tone, asymmetry with compensation in other parts of the body, decreased or no pain, dull or achy tenderness, prolonged blanching of the skin, lack of edema and erythema
This condition is primary hyperaldosteronism caused by a aldosterone secreting tumor of the adrenal gland. Characterized by HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, low renin levels
In determining the axis of rotation in a sacral torsion, how can the seat flexion test lead you to the answer?
side of the axis of rotation is opposite the side of the positive seated flexion test
Name the organism - non lactose fermenting gram negative rod associated with urinary tract infections; has rapid motility leading to swarming pattern
Clarithromycin is what type of antibiotic and what are its indications?
Macrolide antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by bind to 23s rRNA of the 50s subunit; commonly used to treat atypical pneumonias, upper respiratory infections, Neisseria infections
What is the MOA of Metronidazole and what does it treat?
creates free radical toxic metabolites in the bacterial cell that damages DNA; used to anaerobic infections, below the diaphragm and certain protozoa infections.
What is the first line treatment of pyelonephritis?
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics with TMP-SMX and amoxicillin clavulanic acid as a second line agent
Hexagonal crystals and a positive urinary cyanide nitroprusside test are associated with what type of kidney stones?
How does Proteus mirabilis lead to the formation of struvite stones in the renal pelvis and calyces of the kidneys?
Proteus mirabilis has urease which causes an increase in urinary pH due to increased ammonia levels
Name the syndrome - autosomal dominant, familial adenomatous polyps, osteomas, desmoid tumors, dental abnormalities, and hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by abnormalities in collagen synthesis is associated with what other condition?
berry aneurysms in the circle of willis
Ribs 1-5 move in what type of motion and axis?
pump handle motion; transverse axis
Ribs 6-10 move in what type of motion and axis?
bucket handle motion; AP axis
Ribs 11 and 12 move in what type of motion?
Caliper motion; move inferiorly with inhalation and superiorly with exhalation
Exhaled pump handle ribs are in what position?
Name the sacral dx - positive right sided seated flexion, anterior/deep right sacral base, posterior/shallow right ILA
right unilateral sacral flexion
Name the STD - presents with single, painless ulcer; screened for with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) or Venereal Disease Research Lab (VRDL)
How does genital herpes classically present?
multiple vesicular ulcers that are painful
What types of tests can be used to confirm syphilis?
FTA-ABS or MHA-TP
What is primary syphilis classically treated with?
What is the drug of choice for chlamydia?
Macrolides, specifically azithromycin - usually given in combination with ceftriaxone to treat for both chlamydia and gonorrhea
By what mechanism is the heart tissue damaged in rheumatic fever?
Antibodies against the M protein produced by Streptococcus pyogenes cross-react with healthy heart tissue
What type of collagen does Ehlers-Danlos syndrome affect and how does it present?
Affects type III colagen; hypermobile joints, elastic skin, easy bruising
Disseminated gonococcal infection causes what triad of symptoms?
Migratory polyarthritis, tenosynovitis, dermatitis
Neisseria gonorrhea is what type of organism? (gram stain and shape)
gram negative diplococcus
What is the DOC for gonococcal arthritis and disseminated gonococcal infection?
3rd generation cephalosporin - ceftriaxone
When should patients with scoliotic curves be treated with bracing?
with scoliotic curves greater than 20 degrees
The descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum receive sympathetic innervation from what levels?
The middle portion of the GI tract - duodenum, jejunum, ilium ascending colon and proximal 2/3 of transverse colon get sympathetic innervation from what levels?
This is a benign tumor of muscle, most commonly cardiac; has a predilection for children, genetically associated with tuberous sclerosis
Where is hantavirus typically acquired?
Southwestern US (Arizona)
Where is histoplasma capsulatum found?
Ohio and Mississippi River valleys
Where is Blastomyces dermatitidis found?
Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys and the Great Lakes
Chapman points for the appendix are located where?
tip of the 12th rib and the transverse process of T11
What type of antibodies are specific for rheumatoid arthritis?
Anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies
What type of antibodies are specific for SLE?
Name the cancer - associated with smoking, cavitations, hypercalcemia due to secretion of PTH related potein
Squamous cell carcinoma
Most common lung cancer in non-smokers
Name the tumor - results in mild diabetes, anemia, venous thrombosis, severe infections, characterisstic rash of necrotizing migratory erythema