Flashcards in Combank 3 Deck (64):
Name the two causative agents of tinea capitis and state which one fluoresces under wood light.
Microsporidium canis and Trichophyton tonsurons; Microsporidium canis fluoresces under wood light
Name this fungus - dimorphic fungus, part of normal skin flora in some, exists both as mold form and lipophilic yeast; known as spaghetti and meatballs
What agents are used to treat Malassezia furfur?
topical ketoconazole or selenium sulfide
Name the fungus - dimorphic fungus that causes systemic disease, presents a severe pneumonia and skin ulcerations
What is Blastomyces dermatitidis treated with?
Name the bacterium: gram positive, rod shaped, anaerobic, sulfur granules
What is actinomyces israelii treated with?
What is Trichophyton tonsurans treated with?
griseofulvin or terbinafine
What should you suspect as the cause of tinea capitis if an African American child presents with patchy hair loss which leaves black dots on the scalp?
Name the bacterium: gram positive filamentous bacteria, partially acid fast, STRICT AEROBE, produces abscesses in the lungs
DOC for Actinomyces israelii
Treatment of choice for Nocardia asteroides
What is the treatment of choice for Coxiella burnetii
What is the treatment of choice for Bordetella pertussis?
Aminoglycosides are used on what type of gram stained infections?
severe gram negative infections
T/F Aminoglycosides are ineffective against anaerobes
Name some other catalase positive bacteria other than staph
Serratia, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces (most), Candida, E. coli
In staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome does the bullae contain organisms?
In bullous impetigo (a localized form of staph scalded skin syndrome) does the fluid filled blisters contain bacteria?
How does the cholera toxin work?
stimulates a stimulatory G protein in order to increase adenylate cyclase, this causes the release of more chloride into the gut lumen and the decreased resorption of sodium. Resulting electrolyte imbalance leads to loss of water from cells
How does pertussis toxin work?
inhibits an inhibitory G protein, leading to increased intracellular cAMP
How does the AB toxin of Vibrio cholerae work?
ADP ribosylates a stimulatory G protein, this turns the stimulatory G protein on, leading to rice water stools
Both Shigella and EHEC produces a toxin that ..
inactivates 60s ribosomes, leading to decreased protein synthesis of the host cell
How does the Clostridium tetani toxin called tetanospasmin work?
blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine leading to spastic muscle paralysis
Which two bacteria both produce toxins that ADP ribosylates elongation factor-2 causing inactivation of this enzyme, leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and death?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis?
Naegleria fowleri (protozoa)
This is a dimorphic, lipophilic, fungal organism
Symptoms caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
urgency, frequency, dysuria, watery discharge, if left untreated can lead to PID
Gonorrhea typically presents which what type of discharge?
Most common cause of bacterial vaginosis
What is used to treat Gardnerella vaginalis?
What type of discharge does Gardnerella vaginalis cause?
secondary syphilis causes what kind of rash?
copper colored maculopapular rash on the trunk, palms and soles
What two organisms are obligate intracellar organisms?
Rickettsiae and Chlamydia
What family is the poliovirus in?
Picornavirus family - single stranded, linear RNA virus
A family of double stranded linear RNA viruses with icosahedral capsules
A family of double stranded circular DNA viruses with icosahedral capsules, includes JC and BK viruses
Family of viruses that includes the influenza virus; they are single stranded linear RNA viruses
Family of viruses that California encephalitis and Hantavirus belong to
How does Brucellosis commonly present?
undulating fever, profuse sweating, joint pain
What is the vector for loa loa?
What is the DOC for Onchocerciasis?
What family of virus does rotavirus belong to?
Reovirus - double stranded linear segmented RNA virus
The only dimorphic fungus that presents with hilar and mediastinal adenopathy
The primary cause of subacute endocarditis in patients with dental caries and gingivitis
How is Coxsackie B virus aquired?
fecal oral route
Coxsackie B is in what family of viruses?
Picornaviruses - non enveloped
A fastidious gram negative rod that is part of the HACEK group of organisms; normal flora of the GI tract; bleach like odor
Cigar shaped budding yeasts match the description of what organism?
A skin infection that causes verrucous and plaque-like lesions after traumatic inoculation (contracted in Africa, South America)
Hepatitis virus that is most commonly associated with infection due to IV drug abuse
Patients who have recovered from hepatitis will have what in circulation?
HBcAb-IgG and HBsAb
Presence of IgG antibody to the core antigen of hepatitis B indicates (HBcAb-IgG) ...
Patient had been infected with HBV
Presence of the antibody to the HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) indicates ...
Patient has mounted an immune response to the virus and is now immune
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive; negative for HBsAg antibody (HBsAb); IgM antibodies against core antigen of HBV (HBcAb-IgM) present
Acute Hepatitis B infection
HBsAg has disappeared but HBsAb is not yet detectable
Positive core IgG antibodies (HBcAb-IgG); will not have HBcAb-IgM
Chronic carrier of hepatitis B
Chronic active carrier state of Hepatitis B
presence of HBeAg, indicates active viral replication
Chronic passive carrier state of Hepatitis B
presence of antibodies to HBeAg (HBeAb)
Have only a positive antibody to the surface antigen (HBsAb) - vaccine only contains HBsAg
Vaccinated against HBV
What is the only way to get HBcAb and HBsAg?
by being exposed to the virus
What is the 2nd most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginitis as #1?
What are risk factors for vaginitis caused by candida albicans?
diabetes, pregnancy, recent treatment with antibiotics