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Flashcards in Combank Q Deck (61):
1

Parasympathetic stimulation of the parietal cells is mediated through what neurotransmitter and through what receptor?

Acetylcholine

-M3 muscarinic receptor which operates through a Gq protein releasing phospholipase C (IP3/DAG pathway)

2

What are the laboratory findings in grave's disease for the following: 

Serum T4

Free T4

Serum TSH

1,2,3-Iodine Uptake

Serum T4: High

Free T4: High

Serum TSH: Low

Thyroid Iodine Uptake: HIGH

3

What type HIV drug would be given to a pregnant Pt?

What is the MOA of thses drugs?

What are some names of these drugs?

NRTIs (nucleoside reverse-tramscriptase inhibitors)

-Competitive inhibtion of RNA-dependant-DNA-polymerase and termination of the DNA chain

-Zidovudine, lamivudine, abacavir, tenofovir, emtricitobine

4

What part of the lung does M. tuberculosis prefer? Why?

The apacies

Obligate aerobe.

5

What kind of psychiatric disorder is chracterized by aggression towards people or animals, antisocial tendancies, decitfulness and serious violations of rules? 

Conduct disorder

 

BAD

6

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is Gullian-Barre syndrome? Why?

Type IV

--> It is caused by antigenic activation of T-cells leading to macrophage activation. 

7

Pt. with ammenorehea, loss of vision, and galactorrhea with recent history of peptic ulcer disease. Explain:

MEN1--> Wermer syndrome

MEN1 typically presents with petuitary adenoma, parathyroid tumor and tumors of the pancreas. 

Vison changes and galactorrhea--> PRL secreting Petuitary adenoma

PUD--> Gastrin secreting adenoma of the pancreas.

8

What muscles are affected in carpel tunnel syndrome?

Opponens pollicis, abductor policis brevis, flexor policis brevis 

9

Pt. immigrates from central america with cough and fever. KOH of sputum reveals multiple yeast budding concentrically from a larger yeast. What bug?

Paracoccioides brasiliensis

 

Looks like a "Pilot's Wheel"

A image thumb
10

This electrolyte abnormality can cause Digoxin toxicity. How?

Hypercalcemia

Digoxin increases ionotropy by inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase and thereby increases intracellular Ca+ by decreasing the activity of the Na+/Ca++ exchanger present on the sarcoplasmic retuculum. 

11

Drug that is effective in treating the pain from post herpetic neuralgia.

Amiltriptyline 

(all TCAs)

12

Infant being weaned from the breast is experiecing vomiting, nausea, and hypoglycemia.

What is the problem? What builds up?

Heriditary fructose intollerance. 

Aldolase B deficiency

"All-dose ladies B-tol(erance) in their foot-toes (fructose) shoes"

 

Frutose-1-phosphate builds up becuase it is trapped in the cell but is unable to be converted to GAP and DHAP by aldolase. 

13

Most common cause of testicular mass in an infant male?

Marker and cell type present?

Yolk sac tumor

Schiller-Duvall Bodies

Alpha-fetoprotein positive

14

Angina that is caused by physical activity and relieved by NO or rest is characterized by what EKG finding?

ST segment depression

--> ischemia that does not fully penetrate the wall

AKA Stable angina

15

A serum ascities-albumin gradient (SAAG) of what value is a cutoff? What does this mean?

What is the equation to calculate the SAAG?

>1.1g/dL indicates that the ascities is due to portal HTN

<1.1 indicates that the ascites is due to decreased plasma colloid oncotic pressure

SAAG= (Serum albumin) - (Ascitic Albumin)

--> This makes sense because as long as your ascitic albumin is low, then water is not being drawn out into the abdominal cavity

16

Reactivation of TB is what kind of hypersensitivity reaction?

Type IV--> delayed type T cell response

17

Isoniazide can cause depletion of what vitamin?

B6

18

Prolonged PT time and hemarthosis as well as prolonged surgery bleeding is cause by a deficiency in what branch of the coagulation pathway?

Extrinsic pathway

Factor VII

A image thumb
19

What is the believed cause of aspiring induced asthma?

Leukotriene excess

20

Surfactant is produced by

Type II pneumocytes

21

A somatostatinoma will cause what S&S?

-Hyperglycemia (due to insulin oposition)

-Steatorrhea

-Cholelithiasis

-Hypochlorhydria

22

Somatostatin is produced where?

In the Delta cells of the pancreas

23

MOA of amilioride and triamterine?

Inhibit Na/K-ATPase in the distal convuluted tubule

--> K sparing

24

Pancreatic chapman point?

Between ribs 7 and 8 on the right

25

Magnesium toxicity will present initially with increased or decreased DTR? Why?

Decreased

Mg opposes Ca entry and therefore Ach release from the presynaptic neurons

26

Characteristic finding on biopsy of brain with rabies?

Negri bodies

27

Tapeworm found in dog feces that causes hydatid cyst disease?

Tx?

Echinococcus granulosus

Tx with Albendazole

28

Most important metabolic abnormalities with acute alcohol toxicity?

-Hypoglycemia--> due to increased NADH from acetate formation leading to decreased gluconeogenisis

-->lactic acidosis from the hypoglycemia

29

What is the purpose of the RB gene?

Holds DNA in the G1 phase until it is ready for cell division

30

Night terrors and enuresis occur durring what stage of sleep?

What is the characteristic of this stage on EEG?

Stage 3

Delta waves

31

Supination of the foot involves what three movements?

Inversion, adduction and plantarflexion

32

MOA of aminoglycosides?

Major side effect?

Example of drug?

Bind to and inhibit 30s subunit

Ototoxicity--> contraindicated in pregnancy

Gentamicin

33

Most common cause of epididymitis in middle age? Tx?

Chlamydia trachomatis

Ceftriaxone and Doxycycline

34

Triad of Bachet syndrome?

What HLA

Oral ulcers

Genital ulcers

Uveitis

HLA-B51

35

Renal cell carcinoma has a strong association with this genetic abnormality

Von-Hippel Lindau

Autosomal dominant

36

Children who walk on their toes?

Duschenes muscular dystrophy

37

MOA and use of methylphenedate?

Block NE and Dopamine reuptake

Used in ADHD

38

Cerebral palsy pts have this characteristic gait

Scissoring gait

Extreme adductor hypertonicity

39

Focal segmental glomerulonephritis is associated with what two chronic illnesses?

HIV and Narcotic abuse

40

Mass in the right upper quadrant in a patient with recent weight loss and is a long term smoker

Pancreatic cancer

Couvoisier's sign--> caused by obstruction of the bile duct by the head of the pancreas

41

Tumor marker associated with pancreatic cancer

CA 19-9

42

Which vitamin deficiency is associated with angular chelitis?

Vitamin B2--> Riboflavin

43

A mutation in what chromosome is resposible for sickle cell anemia?

AR or AD?

Chromosome 11

AR

44

ash leaf spots (hypopigmentation), angiofibromas, cardiac rhabdomyomas, mental retardation

Tuberous sclerosis

AD

45

Level and dermatographic distribution of the medial antebrachial cutaneous N.?

C8-T1

Medial forearm

46

Function and innervation of the biceps femoris?

Knee flexion and hip extension

-Long head is innervated by the Sciatic (L5-S3)

-Short head is innervated by the common peroneal branch of the sciatic (L5-S2)

47

Hepatits form that replicates via a reverse transcriptase?

Hepatits B

48

This form of hepatitis coats itself with LDL and VLDL to infect hepatocytes

Hepatitis C

49

This type of hepatitis has high fetal and pegnancy mortality

Hepatitis E

50

Crainal manipulation of this bone is indicated in AOM

Temporal.

Most of the eustation tube is closely associated with the temporal bone.

51

First line Tx of diabetes?

Metformin

52

What are the first gen atypical antipsychotics?

What are their MOAs?

Fluphenazine, haloperidol, droperidol, chlropromazine, thioridizine

--> Inhibition at D2 receptors

53

CAG trinucleotide repeat

Huntington disease

-->anticipation caused by alippage of the DNA polymerase during transcription

54

CGG repeat?

Fragile X syndrome

55

Study of choice to determin disease prevelance in a population?

Cross sectional

56

Drug commonly used as an antispasmotic in COPD and has a common side effect of dry mouth?

Theophylline

PDEi

57

DOC for A. isralii causing 'lumpy jaw' abscess. (yellow granular discharge)

Penicillin

58

H2 blockers like the ones used in GERD all end in what?

-DINE

Rinitidine, cimetidine, famotadine etc

59

Tinitus, sensoryneural hearing loss, and vertigo

Roaring in the ears and spinning room

Menier's disease

60

What two muscles are tested with the finklestein test?

Abductor pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis brevis

61

Amiodarone can cause what respiratory abnormality?

Pulmonary fibrosis