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Flashcards in Micro Deck (63):
1

Media used to isolate H. influenszae?

Chocolate agar

Factors V and X

2

Neisseria species are isolated on this agar

Thayer-martin or VPN

3

A child has whooping cough. What media is selective for the causitive agent?

Bordet-Gengou agar

(Bordet for Bordettella)

4

Diptheria is isolated on this agar

Tellurite or Loffler's media

5

Caseating granulomas in an immigrant. What agar?

TB

Lowenstein-Jensen agar

(Think LBJ)

6

Person comes back from cruise or tropical vacation with pneumonia. What agar is specific for the causitive agent?

L. pneumophila

BCYE- Buffered charcoal yeast extract (Cysteine and iron buffer)

7

What are the encapsulated organisms?

S. pneumo

H. influenszae

N. meningitidis

E. coli

Salmonella

Klebsiella

Group B. Strep

SHiNE SKiS

8

People with chronic granulomatous disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency) have recurrent infections with these organisms

Pseudomonas

Listeria

Aspergillus

Candida

E. coli

S. aureus

Serratia

(You need PLACESS for your CATs)

9

C. diptheriae and P. aeruginosa use their toxins ______ and ______ respectively to induce this effect.

C. dpitheriae--> Diptheria toxin

P. aeruginosa--> Exotoxin A

Both inhibit EF-2 and therefore cause cell death

10

Shigella and EHEC (O157:H7) toxins have a similar MOA. What is the name of the toxin(s) and how do they differ?

Shigella--> Shiga toxin

EHEC--> Shiga-like toxin

Both inactivate the 60s ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA and cause cell death.

--> Differ in that EHEC does not invade the host cells

11

What is the MOA behind EHEC and Shigella induced HUS?

Excessive cytokine release

12

ETEC has two toxins. How do they differ in their stability and MOA?

Heat Labile toxin--> increases cAMP by binding adenylate cyclase (Increase Cl- flux and H2O loss)

Heat stable toxin--> binds to and activated guanylate cyclase increaseing cGMP (decreases Na resorbtion)

Think labile in the Air and stable on the Ground

13

How do TSST-1 and Exotxin A (S. pyo) compare in their MOA?

They exert the same effect

--> Bring MHC-II and the TCR in close proximity causing T-cell activation--> release of IL-2 and INF-y--> Shock

14

What kind of bacteria produce endotoxins? How can we remember the effect?

Gram (-) bacteria lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane

"ENDOTOXIN"

Edema

NO release

DIC/Death

Outer membrane

TNF-a

O-antigen

eXtremely heat stable

IL-1

Neutrophil degranulation

A image thumb
15

Novobiocin reststant v. sensitive?

Sensitive--> S. epidermidis

Resistant--> S. saprophyticus

(Skin (epidermidis) is sensitive. Newlyweds (Novo and UTI) are resistant to abstience)

16

How to remember optichin sensitivity

OVRPS

Optichin--> Viridans is Resistant and Pneumonia is Sensitive

17

How to remember bacitracin resistance.

B-SABR

Bacitracin--> Sensitive group A strep (Pyo) and Resistant group B strep (agalactiae).

18

H. pylori tripple therapy

PPI

Clarithromycin

Amoxicillin or Metronidazole

19

Transmission and source for:

Borrelia recurrentis

Brucella

Campylobacter

Coxiella brunetti

Borrelia recurrentis--> recurrent fever from louse

Brucella--> unpasturized dairy

Campylobacter--> puppies, livestock, pork

Coxiella brunetti--> cattle placenta

20

Trasmitted by the lonestar tick

Ehrlichiosis

21

Transmitted by armadillos

Leprosy

22

RMSF transmitted by

Dermacentor tick

23

Anchovy past liver abscesses (flask shapped if submucosal)--> what bug

entamoeba histolytica

24

African sleeping sickness transmitted by the

Tsetse fly--> painful bite

25

Wuchereria bancroti disease and vector?

Elephantiasis

Trasmitted by Mosquito

26

Chagas disease trasmitted by

Reduviid Bug

27

Oncocera volvulus causes

transmitted by the

African river blindness

Black fly

28

Sand fly transmitts

Leishmaniasis

29

Bear hunter with myalgia and low grade fever

Trichinella spiralis

30

Non-enveloped RNA virus families

Calcivirus

Picornavirus

Reovirus

Hepevirus

31

Non-enveloped DNA virus families

Parvovirus

Adenovirus

Papillomavirus

Polyomavirus

32

Where do DNA viruses typically replicate with what exceptions?

In the nucleus

Exceptions are Pox viruses: Smallpox and molluscum contagiosum--> replicate in cytoplasm

33

Where do most RNA viruses replicate? What are the exceptions?

Cytoplasm

Exceptions: Influensza and Retroviruses

34

Reassortment occurs between what kind of virsuses?

--> leads to pandemics

RNA viruses only

 

35

recombination occurs between what kind of viruses?

typically DNA viruses (and RNA with a DNA phase)

36

Phenotypic mixing

Progeny viruses recieves surface proteins from both virsuses, but the DNA of the progeny is unchanged. This means the Surface proteins in the next gen will be normal again

37

Most DNA viruses are __DNA the exception is ______

dsDNA

Parvovirus has ssDNA

38

Most DNA genomes are circular or linear? Exceptions?

Linear

Exceptions: Papillomavirus, Polyomavirsu (both circular)

Hepadnavirus- partially circular

39

Most RNA viruses are ___RNA. Exceptions include...

ssRNA

Exceptions are reovirus and rotovirus (dsRNA)

40

Most RNA are (+ or -)

+

41

Naked dsDNA is not infectious in what viruses 

Poxvirus and Hep B

 

42

DNA virus families

Herpesvirus

Hepadnavirus

Adenovirus

Parvovirus

Papillomavirus

Polyomavirus

Poxvirus

(HHAPPPP)

43

Enveloped DNA viruses include

Herpes virsuses

Hepadnaviruses (HBV)

Pox virus (smallpox and mulluscum contageosum)

Herpes and Hepatitis come wrapped in a Pox (box)

 

44

Live attenuated virus vaccines

Smallpox

yellow fever 

chicken pox

MMR

Sabine polio (oral)

Herpes xoster

Influenza (nasal)

Rotavirus

 

45

Recombinant viral vaccines

HBV and HPV

46

Is it okay to give HIV pts live vaccines?

Yes actually...

The two that are okay: MMR and Varicella with a CD4> 200

NOT IN AIDS

47

Killed virus vaccines

Injectible influensza

Rabies

Hep A

Salk polio (injectable)

 

48

Subunit vaccines

Hep B

HPV

49

Vaccines that use chicken eggs?

CI'ed in...

Influensza

MMR

Yellow fever

Egg allergy people (anaplactic reaction)

50

Naked viruses....

Hepevirus

Papilloma

Adeno

Parvo

Polyoma

 

Picorna and Calicivirus

Remember: A Naked Heppi (hippy) gave me a PAPP smear when I went to REO from Cali.

51

Coltivirus causes

Colorado tick fever

Wood tick--> acute self-limited flu like illness

52

Enteroviruses

PERCH

Poliovirus

Echovirus

Rhinovirus

Coxsackievirus--> HFM disease (A), aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and pericaditis(B)

HAV

53

Major calicivirus...

Etiology

Norwalk virus

Cruise ships...coming out both ends

54

Hepetitis C family

Favivirus

(also includes Yellow fever, dengue, St. louid encepahlitis, and West Nile)

55

Most common mosquito born illness world wide

How is it diagnosed?

Dengue fever (bone break fever)

Muscle and joint pain, headache and retro-orbital pain

--> Tourniquet test--> inflate and look for petechia indicative of thrombocytopenia

56

Cadida associated with what pH?

Acidic pH

57

Treatment for candida:

Vaginal

Oral/esophageal

Systemic

Vaginal- topical Azole

Oral/Esophageal- Nystatin (swish and swallow) fluconazole or caspofungin

Systemic- Fluconazole, amphoterocin B (IC pts) of caspofungin

58

Narrow based budding and india ink stain

Cryptococcus neoformans--> soap bubble sign

59

Wide/Right angle non-septate hyphae

Acute angle fungi

Wide/Right angle: Mucor and Rhizopus

Acute angle: Aspirgillus fumigatus

60

Tx of Aspirgillus

Amphoterocin B or a -conazole

61

Bad sequalea of mucormycosis

rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscess (real bad)

Give amphoterocin B

62

4 dermatophytic molds

Mycosproum

Tricophyton

Epidermophyton

Malasezzia Furfur

63

Abdominal Sx with PAS+ granules in macrophages

Tropheryma whipelli