Media used to isolate H. influenszae?
Factors V and X
Neisseria species are isolated on this agar
Thayer-martin or VPN
A child has whooping cough. What media is selective for the causitive agent?
(Bordet for Bordettella)
Diptheria is isolated on this agar
Tellurite or Loffler's media
Caseating granulomas in an immigrant. What agar?
Person comes back from cruise or tropical vacation with pneumonia. What agar is specific for the causitive agent?
BCYE- Buffered charcoal yeast extract (Cysteine and iron buffer)
What are the encapsulated organisms?
Group B. Strep
People with chronic granulomatous disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency) have recurrent infections with these organisms
(You need PLACESS for your CATs)
C. diptheriae and P. aeruginosa use their toxins ______ and ______ respectively to induce this effect.
C. dpitheriae--> Diptheria toxin
P. aeruginosa--> Exotoxin A
Both inhibit EF-2 and therefore cause cell death
Shigella and EHEC (O157:H7) toxins have a similar MOA. What is the name of the toxin(s) and how do they differ?
Shigella--> Shiga toxin
EHEC--> Shiga-like toxin
Both inactivate the 60s ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA and cause cell death.
--> Differ in that EHEC does not invade the host cells
What is the MOA behind EHEC and Shigella induced HUS?
Excessive cytokine release
ETEC has two toxins. How do they differ in their stability and MOA?
Heat Labile toxin--> increases cAMP by binding adenylate cyclase (Increase Cl- flux and H2O loss)
Heat stable toxin--> binds to and activated guanylate cyclase increaseing cGMP (decreases Na resorbtion)
Think labile in the Air and stable on the Ground
How do TSST-1 and Exotxin A (S. pyo) compare in their MOA?
They exert the same effect
--> Bring MHC-II and the TCR in close proximity causing T-cell activation--> release of IL-2 and INF-y--> Shock
What kind of bacteria produce endotoxins? How can we remember the effect?
Gram (-) bacteria lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane
eXtremely heat stable
Novobiocin reststant v. sensitive?
Sensitive--> S. epidermidis
Resistant--> S. saprophyticus
(Skin (epidermidis) is sensitive. Newlyweds (Novo and UTI) are resistant to abstience)
How to remember optichin sensitivity
Optichin--> Viridans is Resistant and Pneumonia is Sensitive
How to remember bacitracin resistance.
Bacitracin--> Sensitive group A strep (Pyo) and Resistant group B strep (agalactiae).
H. pylori tripple therapy
Amoxicillin or Metronidazole
Transmission and source for:
Borrelia recurrentis--> recurrent fever from louse
Brucella--> unpasturized dairy
Campylobacter--> puppies, livestock, pork
Coxiella brunetti--> cattle placenta
Trasmitted by the lonestar tick
Transmitted by armadillos
RMSF transmitted by
Anchovy past liver abscesses (flask shapped if submucosal)--> what bug
African sleeping sickness transmitted by the
Tsetse fly--> painful bite
Wuchereria bancroti disease and vector?
Trasmitted by Mosquito
Chagas disease trasmitted by
Oncocera volvulus causes
transmitted by the
African river blindness
Sand fly transmitts
Bear hunter with myalgia and low grade fever
Non-enveloped RNA virus families
Non-enveloped DNA virus families
Where do DNA viruses typically replicate with what exceptions?
In the nucleus
Exceptions are Pox viruses: Smallpox and molluscum contagiosum--> replicate in cytoplasm
Where do most RNA viruses replicate? What are the exceptions?
Exceptions: Influensza and Retroviruses
Reassortment occurs between what kind of virsuses?
--> leads to pandemics
RNA viruses only
recombination occurs between what kind of viruses?
typically DNA viruses (and RNA with a DNA phase)
Progeny viruses recieves surface proteins from both virsuses, but the DNA of the progeny is unchanged. This means the Surface proteins in the next gen will be normal again
Most DNA viruses are __DNA the exception is ______
Parvovirus has ssDNA
Most DNA genomes are circular or linear? Exceptions?
Exceptions: Papillomavirus, Polyomavirsu (both circular)
Hepadnavirus- partially circular
Most RNA viruses are ___RNA. Exceptions include...
Exceptions are reovirus and rotovirus (dsRNA)
Most RNA are (+ or -)
Naked dsDNA is not infectious in what viruses
Poxvirus and Hep B
DNA virus families
Enveloped DNA viruses include
Pox virus (smallpox and mulluscum contageosum)
Herpes and Hepatitis come wrapped in a Pox (box)
Live attenuated virus vaccines
Sabine polio (oral)
Recombinant viral vaccines
HBV and HPV
Is it okay to give HIV pts live vaccines?
The two that are okay: MMR and Varicella with a CD4> 200
NOT IN AIDS
Killed virus vaccines
Salk polio (injectable)
Vaccines that use chicken eggs?
Egg allergy people (anaplactic reaction)
Picorna and Calicivirus
Remember: A Naked Heppi (hippy) gave me a PAPP smear when I went to REO from Cali.
Colorado tick fever
Wood tick--> acute self-limited flu like illness
Coxsackievirus--> HFM disease (A), aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and pericaditis(B)
Cruise ships...coming out both ends
Hepetitis C family
(also includes Yellow fever, dengue, St. louid encepahlitis, and West Nile)
Most common mosquito born illness world wide
How is it diagnosed?
Dengue fever (bone break fever)
Muscle and joint pain, headache and retro-orbital pain
--> Tourniquet test--> inflate and look for petechia indicative of thrombocytopenia
Cadida associated with what pH?
Treatment for candida:
Vaginal- topical Azole
Oral/Esophageal- Nystatin (swish and swallow) fluconazole or caspofungin
Systemic- Fluconazole, amphoterocin B (IC pts) of caspofungin
Narrow based budding and india ink stain
Cryptococcus neoformans--> soap bubble sign
Wide/Right angle non-septate hyphae
Acute angle fungi
Wide/Right angle: Mucor and Rhizopus
Acute angle: Aspirgillus fumigatus
Tx of Aspirgillus
Amphoterocin B or a -conazole
Bad sequalea of mucormycosis
rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscess (real bad)
Give amphoterocin B
4 dermatophytic molds
Abdominal Sx with PAS+ granules in macrophages