Flashcards in Communication Deck (41):
What is communication?
1. lifelong learning process for nurses
2. essential part of nursing practice
3. builds relationships with patients, family, team members
it is dynamic because everyone communicates differently
What does communication mean?
establish helping and healing relationships
ability to relate to others is important
What does ineffective communication lead to?
1. poor patient outcomes
2. increased adverse incidents
3. decreased professional credibility
What is perception?
how we mentally organize and break down information
What are the levels of communication?
1. intrapersonal: occurs within individual (self-talk/inner thoughts)
2. interpersonal: one on one interaction between 2 people
3. transpersonal: interaction with a person's spiritual domain
4. small-group: interaction with small number of people
5. public: interaction with audience
Points involved in the communication process?
1. referent: motivates us to tell someone something
2. channel: way you transmit message
3. feedback: let's us know if message was understood
4. interpersonal variables: things that can change communication process (gender, culture)
5. environment: where conversation is taking place
What is feedback?
verbal and non-verbal cues that we perceive to our communication.
let's us know if our message was understood
What is internal feedback?
feedback you give yourself as you monitor your own behaviour during an interaction
What is external feedback?
feedback from others who are involved in the conversation
Pros of electronic communication?
transmit information faser
good for long distance communication
Cons of electronic communication?
takes humanity out of communication
misinterpretation of messages
we don't know who is on the other end of the message (legal aspects)
What are the forms of communication?
1. verbal communication
2. non-verbal communication
3. symbolic communication (art, music, dance)
4. metacommunication (involves everything that influences communication)
What factors should you consider in verbal communication?
4. denotative & connotative meaning
5. clarity & brevity
6. timing & relevance
What is non-verbal communication?
communication using facial expressions, gestures
often more effective reflection of feelings than verbal communication.
What factors should you consider in non-verbal communication?
2. posture & gait
3. facial expression
4. eye contact
7. personal space
what is congruency in nonverbal communication?
verbal and non-verbal behaviour match and have the dame meaning.
incongruent = they don't match
*** What are the zones of personal space? ***
1. intimate 0-.5 meter
2. personal .5-1 meter
3. social 1-4 meter
4. public 4 meters or more
*** What are the zones of touch? ***
1. social: hands, arms, shoulders
2. consent: mouth, wrists, feet/ankles
3. vulnerable: neck, face, front of body
4. intimate: genitals, rectum
What is mehrabian's communication rule?
tone 38 %
body language 55%
What are some therapeutic relationships in nursing?
What are the advantages to a nurse-patient relationship?
1. allows patient to achieve their health care goals and personal growth
2. helps patient understand illness
3. helps patient develop healthier self-care
What are the characteristics of nurse-patient relationship?
emotional bond between nurse and patient
respect client as individual
focuses on clients wellbeing
based on mutual trust, respect, acceptance
What are the 4 phases of a therapeutic relationship?
1. pre-interaction (review pt history, gather info from other caregivers, set time, select appropriate environment)
2. orientation phase (set tone for relationship, closely observe pt, assess pt health status, identifies pt goals,
3. working phase (encourages pt to explore feelings/thoughts, encourages pt to set goals, takes action to help pt meet goals, uses appropriate confrontation)
4. termination phase (reminds pt that relationship termination is near, evaluates goal achievement, facilitates transition of care to other caregivers)
What are the elements of professional communication?
courtesy, use of names, trustworthiness, assertiveness
What are factors that affect communication?
gender, developmental factors, sociocultural factors, physical facts, emotional factors
*** What are physical attending behaviours? ***
face the person
have open posture
lean towards the person
maintain eye contact
try and be relaxed
What is active listening?
listening attentively using all of your senses
done through listening and use of physical attending behaviours
What is an open-ended question?
aimed at obtaining a full patient response and discussion between the patient and nurse
allows patient to talk/explore
What is a close-ended question?
limit the patient's answers to one or two words
getting answers for only what you need
Pro of using open ended questions?
nurse follows patient conversation
allows interviewer to listen and assess pt's world
puts pt at ease
Pro of using closed ended questions?
nurse controls conversation and gets to the point answers
better control of questions/answers
less work for interviewee
easier for unskilled interviewer
Con of using open ended questions?
more time consuming
easier withhold information
get more info than you wanted
Con of using closed ended questions?
may provide too little information
may not reveal how interviewee feels
interviewee may not be able to give valuable information
interviewer dominates conversation
Sample open ended questions?
tell me how you feel
give an example of how you get relief from your pain
Sample close ended questions?
do you feel your medication is helping you?
are you in pain
What is empathy?
understand and accept another person's perspective
understand someone else's feelings
What is sympathy?
experiencing someone else's emotions
What are non-therapeutic techniques?
asking non relevant questions
Genuine reassurance (therapeutic) examples
care is available
you will be treated as a person
False reassurance (non-therapeutic) examples
you will be better soon
I am sure there is nothing to worry about
everything is going to be okay