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Introduction To Nursing > Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Communication Deck (41):

What is communication?

1. lifelong learning process for nurses
2. essential part of nursing practice
3. builds relationships with patients, family, team members

it is dynamic because everyone communicates differently


What does communication mean?

establish helping and healing relationships

ability to relate to others is important


What does ineffective communication lead to?

1. poor patient outcomes
2. increased adverse incidents
3. decreased professional credibility


What is perception?

how we mentally organize and break down information


What are the levels of communication?

1. intrapersonal: occurs within individual (self-talk/inner thoughts)
2. interpersonal: one on one interaction between 2 people
3. transpersonal: interaction with a person's spiritual domain
4. small-group: interaction with small number of people
5. public: interaction with audience


Points involved in the communication process?

1. referent: motivates us to tell someone something
2. channel: way you transmit message
3. feedback: let's us know if message was understood
4. interpersonal variables: things that can change communication process (gender, culture)
5. environment: where conversation is taking place


What is feedback?

verbal and non-verbal cues that we perceive to our communication.

let's us know if our message was understood


What is internal feedback?

feedback you give yourself as you monitor your own behaviour during an interaction


What is external feedback?

feedback from others who are involved in the conversation


Pros of electronic communication?

transmit information faser
good for long distance communication


Cons of electronic communication?

not personal
takes humanity out of communication
misinterpretation of messages

we don't know who is on the other end of the message (legal aspects)


What are the forms of communication?

1. verbal communication
2. non-verbal communication
3. symbolic communication (art, music, dance)
4. metacommunication (involves everything that influences communication)


What factors should you consider in verbal communication?

1. pace
2. intonation
3. vocabulary
4. denotative & connotative meaning
5. clarity & brevity
6. timing & relevance
7. credibility
8. humor


What is non-verbal communication?

communication using facial expressions, gestures

often more effective reflection of feelings than verbal communication.


What factors should you consider in non-verbal communication?

1.personal appearance
2. posture & gait
3. facial expression
4. eye contact
5. gestures
6. sounds
7. personal space


what is congruency in nonverbal communication?

verbal and non-verbal behaviour match and have the dame meaning.

incongruent = they don't match


*** What are the zones of personal space? ***

1. intimate 0-.5 meter
2. personal .5-1 meter
3. social 1-4 meter
4. public 4 meters or more


*** What are the zones of touch? ***

1. social: hands, arms, shoulders
2. consent: mouth, wrists, feet/ankles
3. vulnerable: neck, face, front of body
4. intimate: genitals, rectum


What is mehrabian's communication rule?

words 7%
tone 38 %
body language 55%


What are some therapeutic relationships in nursing?

inter-professional team


What are the advantages to a nurse-patient relationship?

1. allows patient to achieve their health care goals and personal growth
2. helps patient understand illness
3. helps patient develop healthier self-care


What are the characteristics of nurse-patient relationship?

emotional bond between nurse and patient
respect client as individual
respect confidentiality
focuses on clients wellbeing
based on mutual trust, respect, acceptance


What are the 4 phases of a therapeutic relationship?

1. pre-interaction (review pt history, gather info from other caregivers, set time, select appropriate environment)

2. orientation phase (set tone for relationship, closely observe pt, assess pt health status, identifies pt goals,

3. working phase (encourages pt to explore feelings/thoughts, encourages pt to set goals, takes action to help pt meet goals, uses appropriate confrontation)

4. termination phase (reminds pt that relationship termination is near, evaluates goal achievement, facilitates transition of care to other caregivers)


What are the elements of professional communication?

courtesy, use of names, trustworthiness, assertiveness


What are factors that affect communication?

gender, developmental factors, sociocultural factors, physical facts, emotional factors


*** What are physical attending behaviours? ***

face the person
have open posture
lean towards the person
maintain eye contact
try and be relaxed


What is active listening?

listening attentively using all of your senses

done through listening and use of physical attending behaviours


What is an open-ended question?

aimed at obtaining a full patient response and discussion between the patient and nurse

allows patient to talk/explore


What is a close-ended question?

limit the patient's answers to one or two words

getting answers for only what you need


Pro of using open ended questions?

nurse follows patient conversation
allows interviewer to listen and assess pt's world
puts pt at ease
conveys interest/trust


Pro of using closed ended questions?

nurse controls conversation and gets to the point answers
better control of questions/answers
less work for interviewee
faster responses
easier for unskilled interviewer


Con of using open ended questions?

more time consuming
easier withhold information
get more info than you wanted
requires skill


Con of using closed ended questions?

may provide too little information
may not reveal how interviewee feels
interviewee may not be able to give valuable information
interviewer dominates conversation


Sample open ended questions?

tell me how you feel
give an example of how you get relief from your pain


Sample close ended questions?

do you feel your medication is helping you?
are you in pain


What is empathy?

understand and accept another person's perspective

understand someone else's feelings


What is sympathy?

experiencing someone else's emotions


What are non-therapeutic techniques?

asking non relevant questions
giving opinions
automatic responses


Genuine reassurance (therapeutic) examples

i'm listening
care is available
you will be treated as a person


False reassurance (non-therapeutic) examples

you will be better soon
I am sure there is nothing to worry about
everything is going to be okay


What is self reflection in communication?

written record of a segment of the interview between nurse-patient that reflects the verbal and non-verbal behaviours of both individuals.