Medical emergencies are caused by illness or disease processes (Nature of Illness (NOI)).
What are the six major processes in order of assessment?
Medical Assessment order of process
- Scene Size-up
- Primary Survey/Resuscitation
- History Taking
- Secondary Assessment
- Vital Signs
Causes/types of infectious diseases
List a minimum of five common communicable diseases
- Herpes Simplex
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
A mask should be placed on the patient with tuberculosis (TB).
As of 2020, a minimum for mask, gloves, and eye protection (PPE) should be worn.
If blood enters the heart from the superior vena cava, what is the order the blood will go through the chambers and ventricles?
Drop of blood path from the superior vena cava
- Right atria
- Right ventricle
- (Out the pulmonary vein, unoxygenated)
- (Returning through the vein, oxygenated)
- Left atria
- Left ventricle
What do we call a group of symptoms caused by cardiac ischemia including myocardial infarctions and angina?
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Referring to medical terminology, define the term acute.
Acute is the experience of sudden and most likely severe complaints of onset of symptoms.
Pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
An AMI happens when there is an occlusion of a coronary artery causing ischemia progressing to injury of the cardiac tissue and then to infarction.
Death of localized tissue
A temporary and transient blockage to the cardiac blood flow resulting in chest discomfort or pain is called ________ ________.
What is the cardiac muscle's ability to have its own electrical system not dependant on the nervous system called?
What is the stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate called?
The onset of pain and quality of pain of:
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and a Dissecting Aneurysm
Onset of pain-will be acute with additional signs/symptoms
Quality of pain- will most likely be described as tight or pressure, increasing over time.
Onset of pain- will be acute without additional signs/symptoms
Quality of pain- will most commonly be described as tearing or burning from the onset.
What is a late vital sign finding of cardiogenic shock?
Hypotension, the drop in blood pressure below 90 mm Hg.
Orthopnea, and what disorder does it present with most commonly?
Orthopnea is an increase or inability to breathe when lying flat, most commonly associated with patients suffering congestive heart failure (CHF)
What cardiac disorder frequently presents with jugular venous distension (JVD) and pedal edema?
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Signs/symptoms of acute myocardial infarction
Signs/symptoms of acute myocardial infarction:
- Acute onset of chest pain or discomfort
- Additional pain in the jaw, arms, neck, and/or back
Best practices suggest we give high flow oxygen via a non-rebreather mask (15 Lpm) for a patient who has no difficulty breathing, pulse oximetry of 97%, complaining of severe and acute chest pain radiating to their jaw that woke them from their sleep.
Too much oxygen in this situation may cause additional harm.
Dysrhythmias that may present during a cardiac event
- Ventricular Tachycardia (V-Tac)
- Ventricular Fibrillation (V-Fib)
Or the EKG could be normal, but normal is not a dysrhythmia.
Components of high-quality CPR
- Correct ventilation/compression ratio
- Appropriate depth
- Full recoil
- Adequate breaths or ventilations
- Minimizing interruptions
CPR must be immediately initiated as soon as the patient is determined as pulseless.
What cardiac dysrhythmia(s) is the Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) designed to shock?
Ventricular Fibrillation (V-Fib) and Ventricular Tachycardia (V-Tach)
The automatic external defibrillator (AED) will shock asystole.
The AED is designed to sense electrical activity in the cardiac muscle. Asystole is the absence of any electrical activity.
Even though angina most often occurs during exertion, we as EMTs should not differentiate angina from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the field.
Diagnosis of an AMI or angina should be done by a physician.
Lobes of the cerebrum
Lobes of the cerebrum:
Common types of headaches
Types of Headaches:
Ischemic stroke and a hemorrhagic stroke
Ischemic Stroke: is a blood vessel in the brain that is blocked either by thrombosis or an embolism.
Hemorrhagic Stroke: is the result of a ruptured aneurysm in a vessel of the brain.
Signs/symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
Sign/Symptoms of a CVA:
- Facial drooping
- Speech disturbances
- Acute onset of a headache
- Loss of balance
- Vision disturbances
Just like differentiating between angina and an acute myocardial infarction, EMTs should differentiate an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke.
Diagnoses and differentiating require a physician's evaluation and tests.