Kyphosis from Lordosis
Kyphosis: Extensive outward curvature of the upper spine.
Lordosis: Extensive curvature of the lower spine, swayback.
What is the medical term for bedsores?
Dementia from Alzheimer's
Dementia: is a slow decline in normal brain functions. Loss of memory and reasoning skills.
Alzheimer's: is an actual disease process.
Mechanical Fall(s) and Physiologic Fall(s)
Mechanical Fall(s): include external forces, for instance tripping or being knocked down.
Physiologic Fall(s): result from an internal malfunction, for example, syncope, stroke, and/or vision disturbances.
Why is polypharmacology an additional concern with geriatric patients?
Because of the normal aging process and deterioration of normal bodily functions, and the likelihood that a geriatric patient is prescribed multiple medications.
What does the acronym APGAR stand for and when should the assessment be performed?
APGAR scoring should be completed at one minute and 5 minutes after the child has been delivered.
A - Appearance
P - Pulse
G - Grimace
A - Activity
R - Respiratory
During childbirth, what is the term when the baby's buttocks presents first in the vagina?
Why is a prolapsed cord lethal to the fetus?
During delivery, the fetus's head will put pressure on the cord, cutting off its own circulation of oxygenated blood.
Primigravida and Multigravida
Primigravida: A woman's first pregnancy
Multigravida: A woman's second and future pregnancies
What is an imminent sign of delivery?
Crowning - the presence of the fetus's head at the vaginal opening.
Eclampsia is hypertension during a pregnancy that progresses to seizures.
What is the medical term for when the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus before childbirth?
How should a nuchal cord be assessed?
Once the infant's head has presented, visualize and feel for the presence of the cord around the infant's neck. If present, slip the cord over the baby's head.
Tools in an Obstetrical (OB) kit
OB Kit Tools:
- Umbilical clamps
- Scalpel or scissors
- Infant cap
- Bulb suction
- Sterile gloves
- Plastic bag
- Towels, drape and/or sheets
How far from the newborn should the first umbilical clamp be placed?
The first umbilical clamp should be placed six inches (15 cm) from the newborn.
The second clamp should be placed two to four inches from the first.
It is important to ask if the pregnant mother has had prenatal care during their current pregnancy.
What stage of labor is the delivery of the baby?
Second stage of labor
- Cervical dilatation
- Expulsion or delivery
- Placental delivery
The mother says that her bag of waters has broken. The fluid is a green/brown color with a foul odor. What is the concern with this information?
The fetus has had their first bowel movement in utero. Be prepared for meconium to be present during the delivery of the baby and provide aggressive airway suction and management.
During pregnancy, what is lightning?
Lightning is when the fetus drops into the mother's pelvic region, positioning itself for birth usually 2 to 4 weeks prior to childbirth.
When stimulating a newborn after delivery, it is best done by spanking the neonate's butt.
The best practice is to rub the baby's back while drying and/or flick the baby's feet.
Pregnant women have an increased possibility of physical abuse.
Ectopic pregnancy is when an embryo develops outside the uterus, most often in the uterine (fallopian) tubes.
What position should a pregnant patient be placed in to avoid supine hypotensive syndrome?
Place the patient in the left lateral recumbent (LLR) or recovery position on the left.
Term gestation is when the pregnancy has reached 39 weeks but not exceeded 40 weeks and 6 days.
If the newborn's pulse is below 60 beats per minute, we should __________ __________.
Anatomical differences between adults and children
- Children's occipital regions are larger
- Infants and young children's tongues are larger
- Children's abdominal muscles are less developed
- The cartilaginous rings of the trachea are less developed than adults
- A child's bones are softer, more pliable
The components of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT)
- Appearance (generally muscle tone, movement)
- Work/effort of breathing
- Circulation (skin color)
Suspected abuse or neglect of any age group is required to be reported to the proper authorities.
What is the disease called that is caused by swelling and enlargement of the epiglottis?
Approximately at what age does the fontanelle become fused or closed?
Around 18 months of age