Shock is defined as a state of hypoperfusion caused by failure or collapse of the cardiovascular system, whatever the cause.
Homeostasis is defined as the body's continual effort to balance all of its systems.
Perfusion is described as blood passing through (circulating) the vessels or other normal tissues and/or organs
Causes of shock
Causes of shock:
- Decreased volume (volume)
- Cardiac or pump failure (pump)
- Decreased vessel function (container)
Tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and pulmonary embolisms are what types of shock?
Types of distributive shock
Types of distributive shock:
- Neurogenic shock
- Anaphylactic shock
- Psychogenic shock
Preload and afterload (in reference to the heart).
Preload: the precontraction pressure increasing the fill of the atria and ventricles.
Afterload: the pressure or resistance present against the heart during contraction.
The hearts' ability to contract is defined as ________ ________.
The heart's ability to produce its own electrical activity is defined as ___________.
The following signs and symptoms are present in what type of shock?
Irregular and/or weak pulse
Cool, clammy skin
Potential causes of Obstructive Shock
- Tension pneumothorax
- Cardiac tamponade
- Pulmonary embolism
Treatments for cardiogenic and obstructive shock
Treatments for cardiogenic and obstructive shock:
- Position of comfort
- Assist ventilations as needed
- Administer high-flow oxygen
- Consider advance life support (ALS)
- Rapid transport
A patient suffering a severe infection may develop what type of shock?
All forms of shock will result in hypotension.
Patients in the phase of compensated shock will not have hypotension.
Which type of shock may result from a cervical spinal injury?
Itching, burning skin, vascular dilatation, generalized edema, and rapid death are considered as what type of shock?
A patient with an allergy to horses, with recent exposure to horses, is complaining of itchy, watery eyes and dry throat. Their vital signs are:
Pulse - 90 bpm
Respiratory rate - 16 and unlabored
Lung sounds - clear in all fields
Blood pressure - 156/82
This patient is suffering from anaphylactic shock.
True and life-threatening anaphylaxis will produce difficulty breathing and the collapse of the vasculature resulting in deathly hypotension.
What type of shock may result from excessive vomiting and diarrhea?
What type of shock is caused by exsanguination?
Shock will progress from ____________ shock to _____________ shock.
Compensated shock to decompensated shock.
The definitive, although late sign of shock is ___________.
We can ignore the presence or possibility of shock until the blood pressure becomes hypotensive.
We should always maintain a high index of suspicion that shock will develop. Early recognition and treatment can prolong patient livelihoods.
Why does the tourniquet application of an arterial bleed from a patient's radial artery take precedence over opening the airway?
The patient most likely has been bleeding for some time. Stop the bleed, then assess the airway and breathing.
The importance of frequent reassessment(s) of a patient showing signs/symptoms of compensated shock.
If the progression of shock is not recognized or managed, the patient may suffer multiple organ failure(s) or damage resulting in death.
What type of medication pen (injectable) will a patient(s) with a history of anaphylaxis be prescribed and ideally be carrying on their person?
EpiPens will be prescribed to patients with severe allergies or known history of anaphylaxis.