Component 5: Importance and Pathophysiology of Shock Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Component 5: Importance and Pathophysiology of Shock Deck (25)
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1
Define:

Shock

Shock is defined as a state of hypoperfusion caused by failure or collapse of the cardiovascular system, whatever the cause. 

2
Define:

Homeostasis

Homeostasis is defined as the body's continual effort to balance all of its systems. 

3
Describe:

Perfusion

Perfusion is described as blood passing through (circulating) the vessels or other normal tissues and/or organs

4
List:

Causes of shock

Causes of shock:

  • Decreased volume (volume)
  • Cardiac or pump failure (pump)
  • Decreased vessel function (container)

5

Tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and pulmonary embolisms are what types of shock?

Obstructive Shock 

6
List:

Types of distributive shock

Types of distributive shock:

  • Neurogenic shock
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Psychogenic shock

7
Differentiate:

Preload and afterload (in reference to the heart). 

Preload: the precontraction pressure increasing the fill of the atria and ventricles.

Afterload: the pressure or resistance present against the heart during contraction.

8
Fill in the blank(s)

The hearts' ability to contract is defined as ________ ________.

 

 

Myocardial contractility

9
Fill in the blank(s)

The heart's ability to produce its own electrical activity is defined as ___________. 

Automaticity 

10

The following signs and symptoms are present in what type of shock?

Irregular and/or weak pulse
Chest pain
Hypotension
Cool, clammy skin
Crackles (rales)
Anxiety

Cardiogenic Shock

11
List:

Potential causes of Obstructive Shock

Obstructive Shock:

  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Cardiac tamponade
  • Pulmonary embolism

12
List:

Treatments for cardiogenic and obstructive shock

Treatments for cardiogenic and obstructive shock:

  • Position of comfort 
  • Assist ventilations as needed
  • Administer high-flow oxygen
  • Consider advance life support (ALS)
  • Rapid transport

13

A patient suffering a severe infection may develop what type of shock?

Septic Shock

14
True or False

All forms of shock will result in hypotension.

False

Patients in the phase of compensated shock will not have hypotension.

15

Which type of shock may result from a cervical spinal injury?

Neurogenic Shock

16

Itching, burning skin, vascular dilatation, generalized edema, and rapid death are considered as what type of shock?

Anaphylactic Shock

17
True or False

A patient with an allergy to horses, with recent exposure to horses, is complaining of itchy, watery eyes and dry throat. Their vital signs are:
Pulse - 90 bpm
Respiratory rate - 16 and unlabored
Lung sounds - clear in all fields
Blood pressure - 156/82

This patient is suffering from anaphylactic shock.

False

True and life-threatening anaphylaxis will produce difficulty breathing and the collapse of the vasculature resulting in deathly hypotension. 

18

What type of shock may result from excessive vomiting and diarrhea?

Hypovolemic shock

19

What type of shock is caused by exsanguination? 

Hemorrhagic shock

20
Fill in the blank

Shock will progress from ____________ shock to _____________ shock. 

Compensated shock to decompensated shock.

21
Fill in the blank(s)

The definitive, although late sign of shock is ___________.

Hypotension

22
True or False

We can ignore the presence or possibility of shock until the blood pressure becomes hypotensive.

False

We should always maintain a high index of suspicion that shock will develop. Early recognition and treatment can prolong patient livelihoods. 

23

Why does the tourniquet application of an arterial bleed from a patient's radial artery take precedence over opening the airway?

 

The patient most likely has been bleeding for some time. Stop the bleed, then assess the airway and breathing.

24
Describe:

The importance of frequent reassessment(s) of a patient showing signs/symptoms of compensated shock. 

If the progression of shock is not recognized or managed, the patient may suffer multiple organ failure(s) or damage resulting in death.

25

What type of medication pen (injectable) will a patient(s) with a history of anaphylaxis be prescribed and ideally be carrying on their person?  
 

EpiPens will be prescribed to patients with severe allergies or known history of anaphylaxis.