What is this?
Every object in a uniform motion will remain in that state of motion unless an external force acts upon it.
Newton's First Law - Law of Inertia
What is this?
Force equals mass times acceleration
f(t) = ma(t)
Newton's Second Law
What is this?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Newton's Third Law
What is the equation for kinetic energy?
Kinetic energy equals one half mass times the velocity squared
KE = 1/2 mv 2
Mass X acceleration = force = mass X deceleration
Types of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs)
Types of MVCs:
What are the two types of injuries resulting from force(s) being exerted on the human body?
Penetrating and blunt force(s)
What are the terms profile, tumble, and fragmentation used to describe?
Every gunshot victim will have exit wounds.
Index of Suspicion
Index of Suspicion means
- maintaining a heightened awareness of surroundings and safety.
- Also, as potential patient injuries or illnesses that may not have yet presented with signs and symptoms or have developed.
Which phase of a blast would result in ruptured eardrums, eye hemorrhage, and possibly abdominal hemorrhage and/or perforation?
Primary blast, or phase one
During the tertiary phase of a blast, what happens to the body?
The body is lifted, tossed, and/or thrown.
Understanding and evaluating the forces or mechanisms of injury to our patients will help us to provide quality patient care.
Which level of trauma facility is best for the treatment and care of a patient suffering multiple systems trauma?
Level I Trauma
Capillary Bleeding: Slow, oozing, dark red in color
Venous Bleeding: Steady flow, not as dark in color as capillary bleeding, although still darker than arterial bleeding
Arterial Bleeding: Spurts consistent with the patient's pulse and bright red in color
When blunt force trauma is applied, it is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion of internal bleeding.
Whether or not the patient initially presents with any signs/symptoms. Also, keep a high index that hypovolemic/hemorrhagic shock will develop.
Signs/symptoms of hypovolemic/hemorrhagic shock for a patient suspected of having internal bleeding
Hypovolemic/hemorrhagic shock from internal bleeding:
- Dry mouth
- Tachycardia and thready pulse
- Clammy skin
- Delayed capillary refill
- Progressive drop in blood pressure
- Lethargy or altered mental status potentially progressing to unconsciousness
Prior to applying a tourniquet for bleeding control, we should _________ __________ _________.
apply direct pressure
If bleeding does not become controlled, apply a tourniquet.
When applying a tourniquet, we tighten and twist until ________ _________ ________.
the bleeding stops
Epistaxis is the medical term for a nose bleed.
Ecchymosis is another medical term for a contusion or bruise.
What are the two layers of the skin that are on top of the subcutaneous tissue?
Epidermis and Dermis
Types of closed soft-tissue injuries
Closed soft-tissue injuries:
- Compartment syndrome
Are abrasions, lacerations, and penetrating wounds considered to be open or closed?
Which position, if possible, should the flap of an avulsed tissue be placed?
Return it to the place it was torn from.
Why should the application of a splint be considered for open or closed soft-tissue injuries?
Depending on the mechanism of injury and the forces causing the injury, there may be musculoskeletal damage as well. Splints may also provide for additional patient comfort.
When treating a soft-tissue injury, we may use the mnemonic RICES. What does RICES stand for?
R - Rest
I - Ice
E - Elevation
S - Splinting
What open abdominal injury should a moist sterile dressing secured with an occlusive dressing be applied?
When are the two times an impaled object can be removed?
An impaled object can be removed only when:
1. The object interferes with airway management
2. Performing CPR
Otherwise, stabilize in place and transport.
Why should an occlusive dressing be applied to a patient with an open, bleeding, anterior/lateral neck laceration?
The application will prevent an air embolism or particulates from being sucked into an open neck wound.
What layer(s) of the skin are involved in a 2o or partial thickness burn?
The epidermis and dermis.