Flashcards in Composers: Musical Style Deck (184):
Name 3 neo-classical style elements used by Ravel.
- lean textures- contrapuntal writing- traditional forms
Name 5 specific musical styles that Liszt favoured (rhythm, harmony etc.)
- enjoyed thematic transformation- harmonic language often chromatic and progressive- favoured mediant relationships instead of the circle of fifths- used augmented triads and other altered chords- late works such as Nuages Gris foreshadow impressionism
Who's first two piano concertos were premiered and published while still a student?
How did Ravel's friendship with gifted soloists affect his music? Give an example.
- resulted in highly virtuosic works - ex. "Gaspard de la nuit" (one of the most difficult pieces in the piano repertoire) was premiered by Ricardo Vines
Name the 4 periods and dates of Wagner's music.
- Early years (1833-1842)- Dresden (1843-1849)- Years of Exile (1849-1863)- Munich, Bayreuth, and Final Years (1864-1883)
Who had great demand as a conductor and championed both historical and contemporary works?
Expressionist elements are evident in which Bartok opera?
The 4 principle characteristics (identified by Prokofiev himself) are:
- classical elements- lyrical elements- motoric elements- search for innovation
When did Bartok start composing, and what type of music was his earlier works?
- 1890s- dance pieces such as waltzes, Landler, and polka - some early piano works were programmatic
Who employed contrapuntal textures and neo-classical forms fugue, sonata, rondo, and cyclic structure? What is an example of a work that shows this?
- Bartok- Sonatina
Who co founded the "New Journal of Music" and with who?
- Schumann- Friedrich Wieck
Describe Messiaen's inspiration from non-Western musical sources. Give examples.
- structural, harmonic, and particularly rhythmic elements were drawn principally from non-Western sources- influenced by his studies of ancient Greek poetry and Hindu music- drew from South American/Peruvian folk music (ex. "Harawi")- used traditional songs and birdsongs of Japan (ex. "Sept haikai")
Who developed the twelve tone method and what is it?
- Schoenberg- a method of composition used to organize atonal music - based on a fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches forming a tone row - a.k.a dodecaphonic music
Who's enthusiasm for composition grew after hearing a performance of Richard Strauss' symphonic poem: "Also sprach Zarathustra"?
How did Prokofiev show Russian nationalism? Give an example.
- through quotations of hymns and folk songs- "Alexander Nevsky"
Ravel's rich orchestral writing was influenced by who?
- Debussy- Russian composers such as Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Igor Stravinsky
Who developed Klangfarbenmelodie?
Brahms toured with a famous Hungarian violinist, who introduced him to another violinist. Who are these people?
- Eduard Remenyi- Joseph Joachim
Who used abrupt modulations, unexpected harmonic progressions, and brilliant virtuosity in his piano sonatas and concertos?
Who's stirring arias and choruses convey nationalism?
What are the 3 new romantic idioms for Mendelssohn?
- concert overture- incidental music- short lyric piano pieces
Describe Messiaen's inspiration from nature, especially birdsong. Give an example.
- birdsongs were researched and transcribed - ex. "Abime des oiseaux" (Abyss of Birds) from "Quatuor pour la fin du temps"
Name 4 of Brahms' characteristic rhythmic elements
- cross rhythms- syncopations- hemiola - augmentation (particularly at cadence points)
Who feared the number 13?
Who was inspired by British Isles, Austria, Italy, and landscapes and regional songs and dances?
In which works did Ravel use the poetry of French symbolists?
in his art songs (melody) and song cycles
Humour, and gentle (even naive) charm is evident in some of who's works? Give an example.
- Ravel- "L'infant et les sortilèges"
How did Handel's music affect Mendelssohn's style?
gleaned a variety of choral techniques from Handel's oratorios
Who used classical style elements in the Romantic era and pulled from different composers?
Describe Schoenberg's music in his American period (1933-1951).
- greater stylistic diversity, with occasional returns to tonal composition- employed a more liberal approach to twelve-tone composition- more connected to his Jewish faith; many works have religious themes- "A survivor from Warsaw"
German nationalism was evident in who's folk song, settings, and dances?
How did Schumann embody the spirit of Romanticism?
- intensely subjective viewpoint- heightened emotionalism- underlying sense of pitifulness
What innovations did Liszt make as a teacher?
- developed the master class format - welcomed any capable student- occasionally offered instruction free of charge
Name 3 contemporaries that Schoenberg was influenced by.
- Wagner- Mahler- Strauss
Who was a pianist, composer, educator, and ethnomusicologist?
Who was inspired by Igor Stravinsky's music and Vaslav Nijinsky's choreography at a performance of "Les Ballets Russes" in Budapest?
How did Bach's music affect Mendelssohn's style?
close study of Bach's music led to a love of counterpoint and part-writing
Describe Schoenberg's music in his expressionist period (1908-1917).
- marked by rejection of tonality- disjunct melodies often span a wide range- polyphonic procedures masked by dissonance- "Pierrot lunaire"
Name 4 musical characteristics of Bartok.
- rhythmic complexities- folk elements- traditional forms- dissonant harmony
Give an example of one of Prokofiev's works where he used polytonality.
"Sarcasms, No. 2"
What were Messiaen's 3 significant sources of inspiration?
- spirituality- non-Western musical sources- nature, especially birdsong
Who had moderate use of chromaticism?
Who was Wagner especially influenced by? What works in particular?
- Beethoven- Symphony No. 9 and Fidelio (opera)- influence was apparent in Wagner's earliest compositions
How did Mozart and the Viennese classical style affect Mendelssohn's style?
inherited a preference for balanced and symmetrical phrases, and clarity of texture
Verdi had 3 periods of musical output. Briefly describe each.
First period: represents gradual evolution within Italian opera tradition (Oberto, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, La Traviata)Second period: demonstrates influences from French grand opera... longer works, larger casts, grandiose orchestration (La forza del destino, Don Carlos, Aida, Messa da Requiem)Third period: composed Otello and Falstaff in the twilight of his career
Schumann's strongest inspirations were literary. Who did these include?
- Jean Paul (Papillons)- E.T.A Hoffman (Kreisleriana)
Schumann admired the music of his contemporaries, including who?
- Schubert- Chopin- Mendelssohn- Berlioz
Describe Wagner's output in his Years of Exile period (1849-1863).
- In Zurich, his creative focus shifted to literary works- articulated his artistic philosophy in influential essays ("Art and Revolution", "Artwork of the Future", and Opera and Drama)
Elements of Hungarian folk and gypsy music were evident in who's Hungarian rhapsodies and Hungarian fantasy?
What was significant about the year the Brahms started working on Ein deutsehes Requiem? Where did it premiere?
- it was the year that his mother died- Leipzig
Who's writing is not always idiomatic, which makes it challenging?
Define tone row.
- fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches - basis of a twelve tone composition- undergoes manipulations including: transposition, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde-inversion
Who used ancient greek dramatic practice? Define this.
- Wagner- construction of long protracted scenes with one character confronting another
Who captured the spirit of Romanticism while maintaining respect for Classical tradition?
Who's music was influenced by the Catholic church?
Who took a scientific approach to collecting, studying, and assimilating folk music sources into art music?
Name 2 of Brahms' musical influences.
- Bach- Beethoven
American audiences were thrilled by Prokofiev's performances, but critics descried his piano playing as "___, ___, and ___".
"Savage, steely, and mechanic"
Who used 'nonretrogradable' rhythms (also called rhythmic palindromes - rhythmic patterns that read the same forward and backward)?
What was Verdi's first major success?
- opera called "Oberto" in Milan - resulted in commission for three new operas
Who employed a sophisticated chromatic harmony? Give an example.
- Wagner- the Tristan chord
Name 3 romantic features (other than programmatic elements) of Mendelssohn's style
- memorable melodies- unexpected modulations- virtuosic writing
Mendelssohn was encouraged to emulate the proven models of who?
Bach, Handel, Haydn, and Mozart
Who presented a historic piano recital, the first of its kind, in London in 1840? What were concerts like prior to this?
- Liszt- concerts before involved many performers and ensembles
Who was a impressionist, and musical style reflected exoticism, neo-classicism, and American jazz and blues?
Who had a natural affinity for Spanish music because of his mother's Basque heritage? Give an example of a work that show Spanish influence.
- Ravel- ex. "Rapsodie espagnole", "Bolero", "L' here espagnole" (opera)
The death of who's mother was a crushing blow, and slowed his creative output?
Mendelssohn made structural innovations such as linking movements. Who was this inspired by?
Who moved away from symmetrical phrases? What did he do instead?
- Wagner- more continuous melodic flow referred to as "endless melody"
Who wrote many pedagogical works, including six volumes of instructional piano solos? What was this work called?
- Bartok- Mikrokosmos
Who was fond of palindromic (mirror) forms, and formal structure was influenced by mathematical principles such as the Fibonacci series?
What incident marked the beginning of Bartok's lifelong interest in researching and annotating folk music at the source?
he was captivated when he overheard a maid singing authentic Hungarian folk songs at a resort
Who often projected an impish, scherzo-like quality through the use of crisp rhythms, clipped staccatos, and colourful orchestration?
What approach to rhythm did Messiaen develop? How is it shown in his works?
- regarded rhythm as an accumulation of durations rather than a division of time into equal parts - many of his works are a-metrical with bar lines used only to indicate phrasing
How did Messiaen's early works (such as the eight piano preludes) reveal the influence of Debussy?
- parallel chord streams - added sixth and ninth- aggregate chords
What are the lyrical elements of Prokofiev's style?
sweeping melodies and lush harmonies (ex. "Romeo and Juliet")
Who was Ravel commissioned by to write the music for "Daphnis et Chloe"? Describe the music.
- Sergei Diaghilev and his Les Ballet Russes - originally scored for large orchestra, wordless chorus, and wind machine
How did Messiaen feel about using Major/minor scales?
- not necessarily unfavourable, but also used whole tone scale, octatonic scale, and created many new modal scales containing anywhere from 6-10 pitches
Prokofiev earned international reputation as what?
a virtuoso pianist and composer
Who were 4 writers that Liszt was acquainted with?
- Heinrich Heine- Victor Hugo- Algred de Musset- Alphonse Lamartine
What is a programmatic element that Schumann used?
descriptive titles identifying specific extramusical associations
Describe Schoenberg's music in his serialist period (1923-1933).
- composed using the twelve tone method- returned to classical forms such as sonata, rondo, variation, and suite- "Variation for Orchestra, op. 31"
Who's career activities influenced compositional output? What is an example of this?
- Liszt- during his years touring, he wrote and performed many piano transcriptions of symphonies, opera arias, and lieder
Which one of Verdi's operas was set in ancient Egypt and premiered successfully at new opera house in Cairo?
Schumann drew inspiration from early masters such as who?
- Bach (counterpoint)- Beethoven (structural innovations)
Who inherited the legacy of the German symphonic tradition?
Describe Schoenberg's music in his post romantic period (until 1908).
- drawn to programmatic elements- chromatic harmony, lush orchestration- "Verklarte Nacht" (Transfigured Night)
Who's works did Schoenberg study and what effect did it have on his music?
- Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms- impact on the development of his contrapuntal style and approach to formal structure
Who mounted productions of new operas in Weimar as conductor and music director?
Who, unlike his contemporaries, showed little interest in program music, and no interest in opera or music for the stage?
Generally, who's music is characterized by contrapuntal textures and chamber-like sonorities?
Name 5 classical features of Mendelssohn's style
- application of traditional forms- clear harmonic function- sonata form with repeated exposition- moderately sized orchestra (aprox. 40 players)- use of orchestral colour
Brahms' piano writing has distinct characteristics. Name 5 of them.
- widely spaced chords- parallel chord motion- frequent chromaticism- contrapuntal textures- orchestral quality
What were the 2 elements at the core of Schumann's music?
- literature- fantasy/imagination
Who's music appealed to Western audiences?
Describe Schumann's use of rhythm
masterly use of syncopation, hemiola, and cross-rhythms
When and where did Prokofiev play his first piano sonata?
while he was still a student at his Moscow debut recital (1910)
What was significant about Ravel's bass line?
- it often followed traditional diatonic progressions
Sergei Diaghilev commissioned a ballet for his Les Ballet Russes from this composer, and it eventually resulted in the popular "Scythian Suite".
What are 3 folk elements that Bartok used to show his Hungarian nationalism?
- pentatonic and other non-traditional scales- irregular rhythms and phrase structures- dance types
What were some of Messiaen's final works?
- his only opera, "Saint Francois d' Assise" - orchestral compositions that reflected his spiritual and metaphysical approach to his craft
As a composer, Bartok was searching for ___ ___ ____, not the stylized music of Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies, or so called "___ ____"
- authentic Hungarian "voice"- "gypsy music"
What did Messiaen call the modal scales he created?
modes of limited transposition
What was Ravel's first published work?
a piano solo: "Menuet antique"
Who had fondness for alliterative rhymes? Define this.
- Wagner- when several stressed syllables been with the same consonant
Name 5 impressionist style elements used by Ravel.
- use of modes- pentatonic and whole tone scales- parallel chord streams- unresolved seventh and ninth chords- aggregate chords (chords built on top of the other)
Describe Mendelssohn's orchestra style
- vivid orchestration- rapid leggiero string passages- chordal texture in the winds
Who further developed Romantic idioms such as the concert etude and lyric piano piece?
What are the classical elements of Prokofiev's style?
- use of classical forms such as sonata and rondo- cultivated classical genres including concerto, symphony, sonata, suite (ex. Symphony No. 1 in D, "Classical")
Which opera launched international fame for Verdi?
Name 3 characteristics of Ravel's musical style.
- brilliant orchestration- incisive rhythms- Lisztian virtuosity
How is search for innovation found in Prokofiev's style?
- progressive features such as unabashed dissonance, abrupt changes of key, and rhythmic complexities- unique approach to pianistic writing. Shown by novel textures and percussive effects (ex. "Diabolical Suggestion")
Who became increasingly disillusioned with the European political situation prior to WWII, and contemplated emigrating?
Who contributed to the development of the formal structure of the romantic concerto?
Who continued to explore new approaches to form, including a more continuous musical design, moving away from the traditional "numbers" approach?
Why did Bartok travel to Slovakia, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and North Africa?
to collect and record folk songs other than Hungarian that he studied
Verdi composed Messa da Requiem in honour of who?
Alessandro Manzoni (Italian writer)
Who's harmonic language was grounded in tonality, though often very dissonant (example of expanded tonality)?
What are the 3 periods (and the corresponding years) that Liszt's career can be divided into?
- concert pianist 1827-1847- Weimar years 1848-1861- late years: Rome, Weimar, Budapest 1861-1886
Who is associated with Gesamtkunstwerk and what does it mean?
- Liszt, Wagner- "Music of the Future", "total artwork"- a movement that supported the fusion of music and drama- all elements of the production are given equal status
How does Liszt's musical style display duality in his personal life?
- virtuosic, but also inspired by religious beliefs- many pieces have religious titles or symbolism
How did Messiaen think of chords and modulations?
he thought of them in terms of colours, personally describing them as resonance chords, rainbows, and stained effect (ex. "Chronochromie")
Who experimented with formal structure, and forms were often generated by content?
What about Ravel does his ballet and opera show?
- clever wit- eye for the theatrical
What are the motoric elements of Prokofiev's style?
constant rhythmic drive resulting in a feeling of 'moto perpetuum' (ex. "Toccata")
Why did "Pierrot lunaire" create a stir after its 1908 premiere in Berlin?
- unorthodox instrumentation- new Sprechstimme technique
Who's musical eclecticism was revealed in wide range of genres?
Who enjoyed thematic transformation?
Who completed the first twelve-tone composition in 1923?
Who cultivated programmatic writing, is credited with inventing the symphonic poem, and contributed to the development of program symphony?
How did Beethoven's symphonies influence Wagner's operas?
- Beethoven's symphonies inspired Wagner to infuse his operas with a more symphonic approach to writing, such as closely weaving vocal and orchestral trans into a complex musical fabric
In which period did Liszt retire from his performing career?
Weimar years 1848-1861
Schumann focused on composing works for what instrument?
In what work by Ravel is there attraction to American jazz?
- first movement of Piano Concerto in G- second movement of Violin sonata (entitled "Blues")
Who's works did Wagner like?
Berlioz and Liszt
Who maintained traditional diatonic harmonic language with moderate use of chromaticism?
When was Schumann's "Year of Song" and what did he do during it?
- 1840- wrote over 150 songs
Who had 18th century style, and was called "Mozart of the 19th century" by Schumann?
Who had a multi-faceted career including composing, teaching, performing, writing, and painting?
Which one of Verdi's three commissions after "Oberto" failed miserably?
the first commission: "Un giorno di regno"
What are the parts of classical tradition that Brahms respected?
- Sonata form- theme and variations- passacaglia
Leitmotif technique is central to who's operas?
What contrapuntal elements played a key roll in Brahms' music?
- imitation- intricate voice leading- well crafted bass lines- frequent pedal points
Why did Brahms adhere to musical tradition (Bach and Viennese classical composers)?
because of Marxsen's teaching
Who was one of the few opera composers to write his own librettos?
- Wagner- he always worked on the libretto before composing the music
Describe Verdi's arias.
- virtuoso coloratura with soaring melodies, spectacular runs, and vivid ornamentation- structured approach: well defined sections, balanced phrasing and lyrical melodies that are occasionally reminiscent of folk songs
Who in their later works, adapted serial principles to melodic and rhythmic elements, instrumentation, and dynamics?
Describe Wagner's music in his Dresden period (1843-1849).
- "The Flying Dutchman" and "Tannhauser" marked dramatic departure from operatic tradition, showing the evolution of a new style- began formulating ideas for what would become "The Ring of Nibelung"
What was Bartok's first major success?
nationalist symphonic poem "Kossuth"
Who objected to the "numbers" approach in Italian opera (recitative-aria-chorus-recitative-etc.)? What did he do instead?
- Wagner- created a more seamless, through composed type of opera in which the distinction between recitative and aria is blurred
Who used colourful orchestration and special effects to heighten drama?
Describe the librettos that Verdi selected.
selected from dramatic possibilities and human elements: love, passion, fate, intrigue, courage
With what song cycle did Schoenberg abandon tonality, marking a radical departure from his earlier style?
The Book of the Hanging Gardens
Describe Messiaen's inspiration from spirituality. Give an example.
- strong catholic faith reflected in religiously-themed works- employed actual chant, as well as melodies influenced by the melodic shapes and forms of chants- ex. "Vingt regards sur I'enfant Jesu"
How did Schoenberg break the harmonic conventions of the past?
replaced it with the twelve tone method
What was Liszt's form like?
- displayed freedom in innovations in terms of form- wrote single movement works with complex internal structures, such as the Piano Sonata in B minor
Who helped Berlioz and Wagner in their careers and conducted the first performance of Wagner's "Lohengrin"?
What is the name of the work that Messiaen published in 1944? What did it outline?
- "Technique de mon langage musical" (Technique of my Musical Language)- outlined his compositional approach, especially with regard to rhythmic and pitch modes
What are the 2 ways that Bartok used to preserve authentic folk songs?
- by notating the music- by creating historic sound recordings at the source of the music (small villages of central Europe)
Who gained international reputation for the Soviets through his style of music and play?
Name 3 romantic features (programmatic elements) of Mendelssohn's style
- descriptive titles- natural imagery- literary references
Name 2 romantic features that Brahms used.
- modal and chromatic harmony- unexpected modulations
Liszt had an artistic circle based in Paris. Who did this include?
- Hector Berlioz- Vincenzo Bellini- Gaetano Donizetti- Fredric Chopin- Nicolo Paganini
What special modifications did Wagner do to the orchestra?
- expanded orchestra, often over 100 players- invented the Wagnerian tuba
What was Ravel's approach to harmony?
tonal but marked by chromaticism
Describe the general structure of the majority of Verdi's operas.
feature conventional "numbers" approach in which overtures (or preludes), recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses alternate
Who's choral music reflects love of polyphony and life long interest in historical styles (Handel, Haydn)?
Who often displays a percussive approach to instrumental writing and biting harmonic dissonance verging on atonality? What is an example of a work in which this is used?
- Bartok- Out of Doors
Bartok's early compositions reveal enthusiasm for ____ ____ (person), and ____ _____ style.
- Richard Strauss- post-romantic style
What genres did Liszt's composing activities focus on during his concert pianist period?
orchestral music including symphonic poems, program symphony, and piano concertos
Who had a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, but also worked as a conductor, music director, and teacher?
Who published "Harmonielehre" (a treaty on harmony)?
Where did Wagner draw principle inspiration from?
- Norse mythology- Celtic legends and medieval epic poems, all with symbolic subject matter
Unlike many piano composers of his time, who did not embrace virtuosity for its own sake?
How did Liszt change the culture of piano performance?
- played from memory- sat with profile to audience- referred to concerts as recitals
Liszt was an important figure in developing modern piano technique. What are some of the techniques (bravura effects) he invented/used?
- extreme registers- wide leaps- a variety of arpeggiated figures- thunderous octaves- tremolos- cascading passages- rapid repeated notes
Why did Prokofiev have a reputation as an "enfant terrible"?
for his wild playing style and percussive, dissonant compositions
Who paid careful attention to language, with integration of text and music, and poetic speech?
As a revolutionary, who evoked more opposition than any of his contemporaries?
Light Scherzando writing is a hallmark of who's style?
Who had significant influence on successive generations of composers including Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, and Arnold Schoenberg?
How was unity and flow achieved in Verdi's operas?
through "signature" themes, recurrent motives (ex. Curse Motive in Rigoletto)
Who is "Le tombeau de Couperin" by Ravel dedicated to?
- mother's memory- friends who perished during the war