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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (11):

What are 11 attitudes of 19th century art and music?

- Sehnsucht (yearning for the unattainable)- Individualism- Heightened emotionalism- Weltschmerz (growing pessimism)- Exoticism (distant, foreign)- Nationalism- Escapism- Fascination with the supernatural- Morbid fascination with death- Art as religion- Adoration of nature


Name 4 non-musical people that reflect the spirit of Romanticism

- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe- Napoleon Bonaparte- Caspar David Friedrich- Charles Dickens


Describe the melody of Romantic music style

- lyrical and expansive- influenced by folk song and dance


Describe the harmony of Romantic music style

- increased chromaticism- exploration of new tonal centres (ex. mediant, submediant)- exploration of modal harmony


Describe the formal structure of Romantic music style

- expansion and development of large forms: symphony, opera, song cycle- cyclical structure, linking of movements- development of miniature forms (ex. Lieder)


Describe how programmatic music was an element of Romantic music style

- trend in 19th century music- instrumental music with extra-musical associations (literary, poetic, visual)- descriptive titles that evoke listener's imagination- orchestral genres included concert overture, symphonic poem, program symphony, and incidental music


Describe the rhythm of Romantic music style

- increasingly complex and varied- use of cross-rhythms, hemiola, irregular groupings- tempo rubato applied by the performer (expressive speeding up or slowing down)


Describe the dynamic range of Romantic music style

- expanded to extreme levels- markings in score are more specific (compared to earlier eras)


Describe the orchestral instruments of Romantic music style

- expansion of orchestra to include: harp, piccolo, English horn, trombone, tuba, contrabassoon- improvements to instruments (ex. 7 pedals added to harp, enabling it to play in all keys)- composers inspired to exploit expanded capabilities of instruments in demanding and virtuosic works


Describe how the piano changed in Romantic music style

- technological improvements (ex. cast iron frame that supported thicker strings-richer tone, invention of "double escapement" action-allowed rapid repetition of individual keys)- pieces requiring greater virtuosity


How did social changes in the 19th century affect music?

- audiences of a wide spectrum of social classes- growing number of amateur musicians, ensembles, and choirs- more concerts, need for more performance venues- emergence of many virtuoso musicians