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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (236):
1

What is the title of the fourth movement of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place, O Lord of Hosts!

2

Why did Brahms leave Hamburg for Vienna?

He was bitter that he was turned down for directorship of Hamburg Philharmonic. He went to Vienna to conduct the Vienna Singakademie.

3

In 1843, Robert Schumann became appointed professor at the newly founded ___ Conservatory.

Leipzig.

4

Who was Schumann's teacher?

Friedrich Wieck in Leipzig.

5

What is the english translation of Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Poet's Love.

6

Schumann often experimented with formal structures, allowing...

Form to be generated by content.

7

Who are the principle characters in Die Walkure?

Wotan (father and ruler of gods), Fricka (mother and goddess of marriage), Valkyries (daughters), Siegmund (mortal son of Wotan, twin to Sieglinde), Sieglinde (mortal daughter of Wotan), Hunding (Sieglinde's husband and Siegmund's enemy), Brunnhilde (favourite daughter of Wotan).

8

Who did Wagner become romantically involved with in his Munic, Bayreuth, Final Years period?

Liszt's daughter Cosima, who was still married to conductor Hans von Bulow. They had three children before she divorced von Bulow.

9

Who was a La traviata inspired by?

A novel and play by Alexandre Dumas.

10

Which composer entered law school to please their mother?

Robert Schumann.

11

What is the text source of the fourth movement of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

Psalm 84.

12

Describe the plot of La traviata:

Violetta Valery is a courtesan in 19th-century Paris. Finds spiritual refuge from tuberculosis in her love for Alfredo Germont. However, the redemptive power of his love comes too late to save her from death.

13

Chromatic Harmony

From Greek chroma for "colour." Liberal use of chords based on notes outside the key. Frequently involves modulations to distant keys. Used as expressive device.

14

What is the English translation of Die Walkure?

The Valkyrie.

15

What was Verdi's first major success as a musician?

His opera Oberto, which led to the commission for three new operas.

16

How was Wagner influenced by Beethoven in his music dramas?

Beethoven's symphonies inspired him to infuse his operas with a more symphonic approach to writing, such as closely weaving the vocal and orchestral strands into a complex musical fabric.

17

What followed the writing of Nabucco for Verdi?

A period of vigorous creativity. A new opera every nine months.

18

Who was Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45 written for?

Robert Schumann. The fifth movement was inserted in memory of his mother.

19

Why did the Schumann family move to Dusseldorf from Dresden in 1850?

As a result of political unrest.

20

What are some Romantic features of Brahms' music?

Modal and chromatic harmony, unexpected modulation.

21

Who was Tristan und Isolde conducted by when it premiered in Munich in 1865? (Hint: Ironically, Wagner would end up marrying his wife Cosima Liszt 5 years later).

Hans von Bulow.

22

In 1872, was Brahms in any financial trouble?

No, he was highly respected and financially successful, and made many guest appearances as performed and conductor.

23

Who was recognized as the greatest Italian composer of opera in the 19th century, whose works remain a staple of the operatic repertory worldwide?

Verdi.

24

Robert and Clara Schumann had 7 children; however, what put strain on their relationship?

Robert's mental instability.

25

How did Wagner make a living in 1839 when he moved to Paris?

He continued writing operas, but survived by working as a music arranger and journalist; his articles and essays were published in several journals, including Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik.

26

What aspects of Verdi's music makes it so popular?

Enduring melodies, rich emotional expression, compelling drama, and universal human appeal.

27

How long did it take Wagner to complete Der Ring des Nibelungen?

Over 20 years.

28

Who had a "year of song," writing over 150 songs?

Robert Schumann.

29

Where did Wagner obtain a musical education?

Attended Leipzig University and studied with teacher/composer Christian Theodor Weinlig. However, he considered himself largely self-taught in music.

30

Which composer used techniques such as contrapuntal elements (imitation, intricate voice leading, well-crafted bass lines, frequent pedal points)?

Brahms.

31

Who was the principle advocator for Robert Schumann's music?

Clara Schumann.

32

Song Cycle

A collection of art songs united by a central theme or narrative thread. Intended to be performed together. Poetic texts drawn from same author.

33

Whose music influenced Wagner very early on?

Beethoven, especially his Symphony No. 9 and his opera Fidelio. This influence was apparent in Wagner's earliest compositions.

34

In what period did Wagner begin formulating ideas for what would become Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of Nibelung)?

Dresden period.

35

Recitative

A speech-like stye of singing heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata. Used for "dialogue" between characters and to advance the plot. Often used to precede an aria.

36

How did Robert and Clara Schumann make a "statement" to Friedrich Wieck?

By getting married on the eve of Clara's 21st birthday, the day when she no longer needed permission.

37

___ became a lifelong friend and collaborator to Brahms, and introduced him to musicians like Liszt, Berlioz, and the Schumanns.

Joachim.

38

Homorhythmic Texture

All voices sing the same rhythm. Results in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic). Delivers the text with clarity and emphasis.

39

What was the inspiration for Dichterliebe?

Heinrich Heine's poetry.

40

How many operas did Verdi write?

28.

41

Verdi's birth/death years:

1813 - 1901.

42

What works marked dramatic departure from operatic tradition, heralding the evolution of a new style?

Der fliegende Hollander (The Flying Dutchman) and Tannhauser.

43

After leaving school, what did Brahms do?

He contributed to the family income by teaching, accompanying in the local theatre, and playing at working-class dining establishments and private parties.

44

True or false? Verdi's wife and two kids died within a two year period.

True.

45

In 1853, Robert Schumann met a young composer by the name of ___ ___ and wrote an enthusiastic article about him. This led to widespread fame for the young composer.

Johannes Brahms.

46

Who was in attendance at the first Bayreuth Festival?

Edvard Grieg, Camille Saint-Saens, and Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky.

47

What is the language of La traviata?

Italian.

48

What were the sources of the librettos for Verdi?

Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, William Shakespeare.

49

Eusebius and Florestan

Two personae of Schumann. Opposing sides of his creative genius. Eusebius was introspective and dreamy. Florestan is extroverted and impulsive.

50

True or false? Wagner reduced the size of his orchestra for more control.

False. He required an expanded orchestra, often with over one hundred players. He invented the Wagnerian tuba.

51

Did Schumann ever achieve his dream of becoming a concert pianist?

No, a hand injury prevented him from doing so.

52

When did Schumann compose Dichterliebe?

In 1840 during his year of song.

53

In the 1830's, what type of composition did Schumann focus on?

Piano.

54

Schumann's birth/death years:

1810 - 1856.

55

Who did Brahms write Four Serious Songs, op. 121 for?

Clara Schumann in anticipation of her death after a series of several strokes.

56

What was Robert Schumann's role in Dusseldorf?

Municipal music director.

57

What is the English translation of La traviata?

The Lost One.

58

Who was one of the few opera composers to write his own librettos, and always worked on the librettos before composing the music?

Wagner.

59

Describe Verdi's first period of musical output, and examples of some of his operas from this period.

Represents a gradual evolution within the Italian opera tradition. Operas include Oberto, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La traviata.

60

Where did Brahms accept directorship to in 1872?

Vienna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Society of Musical Friends).

61

What was Wagner's first opera, and what was unusual about it?

Die Feen (The Fairies). It was never performed in his lifetime.

62

Gesamtkunstwerk

German for "total art work." An ideal expounded by Wagner in his writings. Achieved through the perfect union of text, music, and stagecraft (costumes, scenery, lighting).

63

What are the characteristics of 19th-century vocal music?

Extra-musical sources, fascination with the supernatural, adoration of nature, subjective emotional expression, and longing for the unattainable.

64

What is the genre of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45, fourth movement?

Sacred choral work.

65

Wagner was the ___ child in his family, and his father died shortly after birth.

Ninth.

66

What did Wagner use as opposed to the "numbers" approach used in Italian opera?

A more seamless, through-composed type of opera in which the distinction between recitative and aria was blurred.

67

What is the structure of La traviata?

Three acts.

68

Die Wakure is the ___ opera in the Ring cycle.

Second.

69

What was Schumann's first composition

Abegg Variations for solo piano.

70

What is the genre of Dichterliebe?

Song cycle.

71

What was premiered at the first Bayreuth Festival?

Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).

72

The ___ technique is central to Wagner's operas.

Leitmotif.

73

Heldentenor

German for "heroic tenor." A male boise with a high range, possessing incredible strength and stamina. Associated specifically with Wagner's operas.

74

Verdi is primarily known for his accomplishments in one genre. What is that genre?

Italian opera.

75

True or false? Schumann embraced virtuosity, often employing it extensively in his works.

False. Unlike many pianist-composers of his time, he did not embrace virtuosity for its own sake.

76

Who were Verdi's influences?

Early opera serial and opera buffs, Parisian grand opera (Giacomo Meyerbeer), bel canto composers (Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini); Italian operas of Mozart.

77

Give a summary of the text of the fourth movement of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45:

The text offers up a song in praise of the gifts of heaven.

78

Give an example of how Wagner employed a sophisticated chromatic harmony:

The Tristan chord.

79

What did Brahms do in Hamburg in 1857?

Accepted a high paying three month position as a pianist and choir director at court in Detmold. He also founded an amateur women's choir.

80

Which composer drew principle inspiration from Norse mythology, Celtic legends, and medieval epic poems, all with symbolic subject matter?

Wagner.

81

Schumann embodied the spirit of Romanticism with...

An intensely subjective viewpoint, heightened emotionalism, and an underlying sense of pathos.

82

Verdi used ___ ___ arias with soaring melodies, spectacular runs, and vivid ornamentation.

Virtuoso coloratura.

83

Schumann's strongest muses were literary, especially...

Jean Paul (Papillons) and E.T.A. Hoffman (Kreisleriana)

84

True or false? Verdi used extreme chromaticism to add colour to his music.

False, he maintained traditional, diatonic harmonic language with moderate use of chromaticism.

85

Why did Verdi move to Busseto in 1831?

To live in the home of Antonio Barezzi, a wealthy merchant and enthusiastic amateur musician. Gave singing and piano lessons to Barezzi's daughter Margherita whom he later married.

86

Libretto

The text of an opera, oratorio, or cantata. Usually written by someone other than the composer.

87

Describe Brahms' mother Johanna:

A skilled seamstress who was only 17 years older than Jakob.

88

When was the first performance of Die Walkure?

1870 in Munich. This is different from the first performance of Der Ring des Nibelungen, which premiered in 1876 at the new Festival Theatre in Bayreuth.

89

Wagner was an advocate for the "Music of the Future" that involves the principle of ___ ("total work of art") in which all elements of the product are given equal status.

Gesamtkunstwerk.

90

Where does the Wagner festival take place?

Bayreuth, Germany.

91

How did Brahms study music?

Early lessons in piano, horn, and cello. After a few years, he was accepted to study piano and theory, free of charge, with Eduard Marxsen, one of Hamburg's leading teachers.

92

What forms did Brahms used that evidence that he respected Classical tradition?

Use of sonata form, theme and variations, and even passacaglia.

93

Where was Verdi born?

In the Parma region of Italy in Roncole, near Busseto.

94

Which composer became unstable early in his life, and continued to deteriorate?

Robert Schumann.

95

What was the name of the journal co-founded by Robert Schumann and Friedrich Wieck?

New Journal of Music.

96

What is the form of the fourth movement of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

Rondo (ABACA).

97

Why was Wagner forced to flee from Dresden in his Years of Exile period?

Because his political activism and revolutionary activities.

98

Where was Wagner born?

Leipzig, Germany.

99

Who founded the New Journal of Music?

Robert Schumann and Friedrich Wieck.

100

Who influenced Robert Schumann's style, and how?

Bach (counterpoint) and Beethoven (structural innovations).

101

Wagner's birth/death years:

1813 - 1883.

102

Inversion

Thematic material presented "upside down."

103

Who is the librettist of Die Walkure?

Wagner.

104

How is Brahms' approach to the "requiem" untraditional?

The requiem is traditionally a mass for the dead in the Catholic Church. However, Brahms replaces the Latin text with German translation of selections from the old and new testaments. The intention is to offer a universal message of hope and consolation.

105

Describe Verdi's third period of musical output, and examples of some of his operas from this period.

Composed Otello and Falstaff in the twilight of his career. Continued to explore new approach to form, including a more continuous musical design, moving away from the traditional "numbers" approach.

106

What is the source of text of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

Old and new testaments of the German Lutheran bible.

107

Give examples of Wagner's signature style that is evident in Die Walkure:

Use of leitmotifs, expanded orchestration, long dialogue between central characters, endless melody, and chromatic harmony.

108

What is the form of Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Modified strophic.

109

True or false? Brahms enjoyed little exposure to the public during his time as a composer.

False, he was catapulted to fame after an article titled "New Paths" was published in the New Journal of Music by Robert Schumann.

110

Who was Wagner raised by?

His mother Johanna and stepfather Ludwig Geyer, an actor and painter.

111

What happened to Schumann's career as a result of his hand injury?

He was no longer able to pursue a career as a concert pianist; he devoted himself to composition and music journalism.

112

Why was Parsifal conducted by Wagner in 1882?

In hopes that it would benefit the heavily indebted Bayreuth theatre.

113

What is the English translation of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

A German Requiem.

114

What is the structure of Die Walkure?

Three acts.

115

Why was the meeting between 18 year old Schumann and Heinrich Heine important?

Heine's poetry became an important source for Lieder.

116

True or false? Verdi used colourful orchestration and use of special effects to heighten drama.

True.

117

Describe Verdi's father:

A tavern-keeper who valued education. Bought Verdi an old spinet (small keyboard instrument) when he was seven.

118

Where did Wagner flee to from Dresden?

He went to Zurich with the help of Liszt.

119

What language is Die Walkure in?

German.

120

Wagner's dream of a permanent festival for performance of his opera was realized when...

The cornerstone was laid for the new festival theatre at Bayreuth in 1872.

121

Brahms' first two solo recitals included the music of...

Bach and Beethoven.

122

Much of Die Walkure is entered around Norse gods and other mythical figures. However, it is also infused with intense human emotion. Give an example of this:

There is a poignant farewell between a father (Wotan) and his favourite daughter (Brunnhilde).

123

Ensemble

A musical number in an opera featuring any number of soloists, but generally a smaller group than a "chorus." Often serves as a musical and dramatic climax. Each person expresses his/her own emotions directly to the audience.

124

What is the key of the fourth movement of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

E flat major.

125

True or false? Friedrich Wieck opposed to the relationship between Robert Schumann and his daughter.

True. Went to great lengths to keep them apart.

126

What happened when Schumann heard Chopin for the first time?

He published an article "An Opus Two" in 1831, using the pen names Eusebius and Florestan for the first time.

127

Under what context did Brahms begin writing Und deutsches Requiem?

His mother's death.

128

How can Wagner's career be divided?

Four periods. 1. Early Years (1833 - 1842). 2. Dresden (1843 - 1849). 3. Years of Exile (1849 - 1863). 4. Munich, Bayreuth, Final Years (1964 - 1883).

129

Through conductor Hans von Bulow, Brahms was given the opportunity to work with ___ ___ and its soloists, resulting in the composition of his last two symphonies and chamber works.

Meiningen Orchestra.

130

What was Robert Schumann's last article about?

Johannes Brahms.

131

Lied (pl. Lieder)

The musical setting of a German poem. For solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment. Flourished in the 19th century.

132

How many periods of musical output did Verdi have?

Three.

133

Which composer inherited the legacy of the German symphonic tradition?

Brahms.

134

In 1839, why did Wagner move to Paris via London?

To escape his creditors.

135

In 1854, Brahms moved into the Schumann household. Why?

Robert was confined to an asylum, and he stayed to help Clara with her family, the household, and Robert's affairs. Brahms also developed romantic feelings for Clara.

136

What were Wagner's first professional positions in which he gained valuable conducting experience but accumulated heavy debt?

He was a chorus master for a cheater in Wurzburg, then later became the music director for a traveling theatre company.

137

How did Verdi select his librettos?

Dramatic possibilities and human elements: love, passion, fate, intrigue, courage.

138

What is the source of text for Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Lyrisches Intermezzo, a collection of poems by Heinrich Heine.

139

In his boyhood, Wagner studied at ___ ___ ___ in Leipzig (the same school where J.S. Bach once taught).

St. Thomas' School.

140

Strophic Form

A song structure where the same music is performed for each verse of the poem. As a result, little connection can be achieved between the words and music.

141

True or false? Robert Schumann's mental instability somewhat subsided after his family moved to Dresden.

False, it persisted.

142

Aria

Italian for "air." A solo song with orchestral accompaniment heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata. Highly emotional, often virtuosic. May have lyrical or dramatic character.

143

Why did Wagner move to Munich in 1865?

His fan, the teenaged monarch King Ludwig II of Bavaria requested it.

144

True or false? Brahms wrote many pieces of program music, but no operas or music for the stage.

False, Brahms wrote neither program music nor operas or music for the stage.

145

Who was known to say "I beg a thousand pardons if there should be anyone here whom I have not insulted tonight"?

Brahms.

146

Coloratura Soprano

A female voice with an especially high range. Trained to execute breathtakingly difficult passages with great agility.

147

Who helped finance Verdi's musical education in Milan?

Barezzi's patronage.

148

Who died in 1883 in Venice, but had their body returned by train for internment in Bayreuth?

Wagner.

149

What is the genre of Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Lied.

150

What approach did Verdi take on his arias?

Structured approach, with well-defined sections, balanced phrasing, and lyrical melodies that are occasionally reminiscent of folk songs.

151

Where did Verdi work in Milan?

As conductor at the Piccolo Scala, adjacent to the renowned La Scala opera house.

152

What is the structure of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45,?

Seven movements.

153

Who is the librettist of La traviata?

Francesco Maria Piave.

154

Leitmotif

German for "leading motive." A device perfected by Wagner in his music dramas. A melodic fragment imbued with meaning, representing a character, place, object, or emotion. Undergoes thematic transformation as the opera unfolds.

155

Schumann admired the music of his contemporaries, including...

Schubert, Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Berlioz.

156

Tristan Chord

A half-diminished seventh chord heard in the opening measures of Tristan und Isolde, formed by the notes F-B-D♯-G♯. Serves as a leitmotif throughout the opera for lover's passion. Demonstrates the heightened chromaticism that forms the basis of Wagner's harmonic language.

157

Was La traviata initially a hit with audience?

No, it was initially considered a failure.

158

Which composer championed the works of Berlioz and Liszt?

Wagner.

159

What is the language of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

German.

160

What is the genre of Die Walkure?

Opera (music drama).

161

At age nineteen, Brahms toured with famous Hungarian violinist ___ ___, who introduced him to violinist ___ ___.

Eduard Remenyi, Joseph Joachim.

162

True or false? Wagner used the "numbers" formula in his operas.

False, Wagner objected to the "numbers" approach used in Italian opera (recitative-aria-chorus-recitative, etc.); created a more seamless, through-composed type of opera in which the distinction between recitative and aria was blurred.

163

Who was Verdi's second marriage with/

Giuseppina Strepponi.

164

What are some characteristic rhythmic elements in Brahms' music?

Cross-rhythms, syncopation, hemiola, augmentation (particularly at cadence points).

165

How did Brahms come about to adhere closely to musical tradition?

Marxsen had a deep love and understanding of Bach and the Viennese Classical composers.

166

Who inspired Robert Schumann to pursue music?

Ignaz Moscheles.

167

Wagner pain careful attention to language, as his goal was the integration of text and music. How did he achieve this?

Created what he called "poetic speech." Showed fondness for alliterative rhythms (when several stressed syllables begin with the same consonant).

168

What is the key of Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

A minor.

169

There was al lifelong mutual admiration between ___ and Mendelssohn after meeting at the Wieck home in 1835.

Schumann.

170

In 1836, Wagner accepted a conducting post in ___.

Riga (Latvia).

171

What are new operatic styles that emerged in the 19th-century?

Bel canto style, verismo, and Wagner's music dramas.

172

What was the nature of the relationship between Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms?

Unclear, but they shared a special bond and were lifelong friends and confidants.

173

Who was the first mainstream European composer to become a true-to-life recording artist?

Brahms.

174

Who was Wagner's spouse, and what was their relationship like?

Singer/actress Wilhelmina (Minna) Planer. Remained married for her lifetime, but Wagner had numerous romantic affairs.

175

Durchkomponiert (Through-Composed)

A song structure that avoids repetition of entire sections of music. As a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text.

176

What are the vocal genres of the 19th-century?

The Lied, choral music, and opera.

177

Who was awarded a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Jena in 1840?

Robert Schumann.

178

Where was German nationalism most evident in Brahms' music?

Folk-song settings and dances.

179

Art Song

The musical setting of a poem. For solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment. Applies to songs in any language.

180

What was Wagner's occupation during his Dresden period?

He engaged as conductor at the court of Saxony in Dresden. His duties included orchestral and opera performances, and composing pieces for special court occasions.

181

What was the occupation of Schumann's father?

Author, publisher, and bookseller; instilled a lifelong love of literature.

182

What was the occupation of Brahms' father Jakob?

A freelance bass and wind player in Hamburg who played in local taverns and dance halls, and later in the Hamburg Philharmonic Society.

183

Which commission of Verdi's failed miserably?

His first (King for a Day).

184

Modified Strophic Form

A song structure that allows for some repetition in music. Some changes to the melody, harmony, and accompaniment take place to reflect the text, such as a shift to tonic major or tonic minor key.

185

Brahms was championed by important writer and critic ___ ___ in 1872.

Eduard Hanslick.

186

What is the genre of La traviata, Act Two, Scene Two?

Opera.

187

Describe Verdi's second period of musical output, and examples of some of his operas from this period.

Demonstrates influences from French grand opera. Longer works, larger casts, grandiose orchestration. Operas include La forza del destino, Don Carlos, and Aida. Messa da Requiem also from this period.

188

What are the performing forces for Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Solo voice and piano.

189

True or false? Verdi was accepted into the conservatory in Milan.

False, he studied privately with Vincenzo Lavigna until 1835.

190

Wagner moved away from symmetrical phrases to...

A more continuous melodic flow referred to as "endless melody."

191

How are the seven movements ordered in Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45?

Loosely symmetrically. The outer choral movements gently open and close the work in F major, and the second and sixth are robust and march-like. The third and fifth feature solo baritone and solo soprano respectively, and the fourth movement offers a comforting vision of heaven.

192

What did Wagner do in Zurich?

In his Years of Exile period, his creative focus shifted to literary works, and he articulated his artistic philosophy in influential essays: Art and Revolution, Artwork of the Future, and Opera and Drama.

193

What are the performing forces of Ein deutsches Requiem, op. 45, fourth movement?

Soprano and baritone soloists, SATB chorus, orchestra.

194

Whose choral music reflects love of polyphony and lifelong interest in historical styles such as the music of Handel and Haydn?

Brahms.

195

What approach did Verdi take in his operas?

The conventional "numbers" approach. Overtures (or preludes), recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses alternate.

196

What was Brahms' cause of death?

Liver cancer.

197

What kind of upbringing did Brahms have?

Family had recurring financial troubles and moved frequently.

198

Ten of Verdi's operas feature librettos by...

Francesco Maria Piave.

199

True or false? Schumann heavily employed techniques such as thematic transformation, syncopation, hemiola, cross-rhythms, and chromaticism.

False. Schumann widely used thematic transformation, syncopation, hemiola, and cross-rhythms, but made only moderate use of chromaticism.

200

How many verses are there in Und wussten's die Blumen from Dichterliebe, op. 48?

Four.

201

What roles did Verdi occupy in Busseto in 1836?

Directed local philharmonic society and gave private lessons.

202

True or false? Robert and Clara Schumann toured Russia, the Baltic, and Scandinavian regions.

True.

203

Rondo Form

Classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle. Section A recurs, with alternating sections creating contrast. Section A is heard three times or more in the tonic key. Most frequently is ABACA or ABACABA.

204

Where was Brahms born?

Hamburg, Germany.

205

What is the source of text of La traviata?

A play by Alexandre Dumas entitled The Lady of the Camellias.

206

Brahms' birth/death years:

1833 - 1897.

207

How did Verdi achieve unity and flow?

Through "signature" themes, recurring motives (for example, the curse motive in Rigoletto).

208

Hemiola

A temporary shift of the metric accents. Notes grouped in threes are momentarily grouped into twos or vice-versa.

209

What aspects of Verdi's operas convey nationalism?

His stirring arias and choruses. For example, O patria mia from Aida.

210

Where did Schumann meet his wife Clara?

He met Clara Wieck in the Wieck household while taking piano lessons from her father, Friedrich Wieck.

211

What is the source of text of Die Walkure?

A fusion of Norse mythology and an epic medieval poem called the Nibelungenlied.

212

Name some composers that Wagner influenced.

Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg.

213

True or false? Wagner grew up in an artistic environment.

True.

214

Giulio Ricordi, Verdi's publisher, encouraged him to work with librettist Arigo Boito. What did this arrangement lead to?

Otello and Falstaff.

215

When was the first performance of La traviata, Act Two, Scene Two?

In 1853 at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice.

216

How long did the Ring cycle take to perform?

Three days with a preliminary evening.

217

Music Drama

Term used by Wagner to describe the synthesis of music and drama. Served to distinguish his operatic style from the "traditional" operas of his day.

218

What are the two elements at the core of Schumann's musical style?

Imagination and sense of fantasy.

219

How were Wagner's music dramas influenced by Ancient Greek dramatic practice?

The construction of long protracted scenes with one character confronting another.

220

Who did Schumann study theory and counterpoint with?

Heinrich Dorn (conductor of the Leipzig opera).

221

Who did Verdi begin music lessons with in 1825?

Ferdinando Provesi in Busseto. He was the church musician and director of the municipal music school and local philharmonic society.

222

Brahms was known to be conservative, as he honoured the tradition of German Classicism. However, he was also progressive in his approach to...

Rhythm, harmony, textures, and idiomatic writing for piano.

223

True or false? Wagner worked on his librettos before composing music.

True.

224

Who did Verdi compose Messa da Requiem in honour of?

Italian writer Alessandro Manzoni.

225

Where was Schumann born?

Zwickau, Germany.

226

How was Verdi involved in the rising tide of Italian nationalism?

His name became an acronym for the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel: Viva Vittorio Emmanuele Re D'Italia. Accepted seat in the new Italian parliament where he served for four years.

227

Which novelists did Brahms particularly enjoy?

E.T.A. Hoffman and Jean Paul.

228

What was the name of Verdi's exotic opera that premiered successfully at a new opera house in Cairo?

Aida.

229

Brahms was generous with his money. Give examples of this.

He assisted family members and aspiring young musicians like Antonin Dvorak.

230

What are some distinct characteristics in Brahms' piano writing?

Widely spaced chords, parallel chord motion, frequent chromaticism, contrapuntal textures, orchestral quality. Writing is not always idiomatic, which makes it challenging.

231

Which opera marked Verdi's triumphant return, and launch to international fame?

Nabucco.

232

Where does the performance of Wagnerian operas take place?

The very theatre Wagner had constructed according to his unique specifications.

233

When Verdi died, where did he leave most of his money?

To a retirement home for musicians in Milan, Casa di Riposo per Musicisti.

234

What makes Wagner's opera house so special?

Perfect acoustics, a specially designed orchestra pit, unobscured sight lines, and fascinating/controversial productions.

235

How did Schumann's music include programmatic elements?

Descriptive titles identifying specific extra-musical associations.

236

Bel Canto

Italian for "beautiful singing." A style used in early nineteenth-century Italian opera. Demonstrated in the works of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and (early) Verdi. Emphasized purity of tone and lyrical melodies of a highly ornamented nature.