Congenital and Perinatal Infections Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Reproduction > Congenital and Perinatal Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congenital and Perinatal Infections Deck (51)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is perinatal infection?

Infectious during time of delivery

2

When is ascending infection most common?

When the placenta has ruptured

3

How does maternal infection lead to premature delivery or fetal death

Direct end-organ damage, chronic infection

non-specific effect. Mum is too weak to have baby

4

When is the Varicella virus vaccine given?

at 18 months, with the MMRV vaccine

5

Why is MMR given at 12 months?

Prevent cross reaction with maternal antibody

6

What is anthem and enanthem?

anthem = rash on surface of the body
enanthem = rash on mouth

7

What are the common herpes virus that affect humans

CMV
HSV type 1 + 2
Varicella Zoster
EBV

8

What is chicken pox?

Primary VZV infection

9

Where does VZV become dormant? What is it called if it reactivates?

DRG
Shingles

10

What is the typical presentation of VZV?

fever, lethargy, rash in 24 hours
Pruritic vesicular rash with ulcerated areas

Vesicles shed virus

11

What are the complication of VZV infection?

Secondary bacterial infection due to skin lesions
Pneumonitis
Acute cerebellar ataxia

12

At what stage of pregnancy is immune-suppression most obvious?

third trimester, so primary infection here is most dangerous as baby is most unprotected

13

T/F Smoking is an independent variable to fetal defect

True, it increases the risk of pneumonitis specifically

14

When is the fetus most susceptible to mental retardation and developmental abnormalities if the mother gets infected by VZV?

Primary infection in the first trimester

15

When will VZV infection cause perinatal varicella

Primary infection within 7 days before delivery, as mum doesn't have the time to mount immune response

16

What is VZIG?

Concentrated preformed immunoglobulin given prophylactically within 96 hours post-exposure

17

what is the management of acute chicken pox in mothers

Acyclovir + negative pressure chamber to limit the spread

18

T/F We can clear cytomegalovirus

False, the infection is life-long

19

What kind of cell is produced when infected with CMV?

multinuclear giant cell

20

Where does CMV stay latent in?

White blood cells

21

T/F Reactivated CMV is much more infectious

False, primary infection is more infectious

22

What is the mode of transmission for CMV?

via any body liquid

23

T/F Most of the CMV exposures occur in adults of the developed world

True, and most exposures in the developing world are in children

24

What are the common ways for babies to get CMV?

horizontal transmission (in day-care centre), or breast milk from mum postnatally

25

2% of the live births will have congenital CMV. How much of the infected will be symptomatic? What are the symptoms?

10%
calcification around brain, microcephaly, significant long term sequelae

26

Can asymptomatic babies develop long term sequelae

Yes, 10-15% will have long term sequelae such as unilateral sensory deafness

27

How do we determine whether CMV infection is early or late?

IgG avidity test for how strongly the antibody binds. Late infection will test for higher avidity

28

T/F IgM is a good diagnosis for acute CMV infection

False, IgM for CMV can persist for a long time, up to 18 months

Reactivated CMV can also cause rise of IgM

29

Why is it important to retest for infections

To detect for rising titres of antibody

30

How do we confirm fetal CMV infection?

amniotic fluid testing 6-8 weeks after primary infection, or at 20 weeks gestation