Sex Hormone and Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sex Hormone and Disease Deck (27)
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1

What is the action of aromatase

make oestrogen from either androstenedione or testosterone

2

What are the three oestrogens?

oestriol, oestrone, oestradiol

3

What is the action of 5a-reductase?

convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone

4

What can ostrogen therapy be used for?

hypogonadism in children
In adults: amenorrhoea, contraceptive, menopause

5

How does postmenopausal hormone therapy improve sleep?

It reliefs the flushes that may disturb sleep

6

T/F Hormone therapy increases the risk of thromboembolism

True, especially oral contraceptives

7

What is the mechanism of action for oestrogen

Binding to membrane receptor or directly crosses the membrane, then work as a steroid to up or downregulate genes

8

T/F Progesterone binding will switch on oestrogen receptors

False, oestrogen receptor binding will switch on progesterone receptors to promote growth and differentiation

9

What are the two partial agonists of oestrogen receptor

tamoxifen
raloxifene

10

At which tissue is tamoxifen a oestrogen receptor antagonist.

breast and CNS

11

At which tissue is raloxifene an agonist for oestrogen receptor

bone and CV tissue

12

What is Tamoxifen used for?

palliative treatment of metastatic breast cancer and adjuvant after lumpectomy

13

What are some adverse effects of tamoxifen?

endometrial hyperplasia/polyps/cancer
thromboembolic event
thrombocytopenia
ocylar toxicity
menopausal symptoms

14

What is the action of exemestane?

aromatase inhibitor to reduce oestrogen level

15

What is exemestane used for?

also used to treat breast cancer

16

What are some side effects of exemestane?

increased fracture risk and bone loss
increased arthralgia
poorer lipid profile + metabolic syndrome
menopausal signs

17

What effect does androgen have on the body

anabolic and masculinising effects

18

At which sites is dihydrotestosterone active?

prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymus and skin

19

What is the therapeutic use of androgen

hypogonadism for male
senile osteoporosis
speed recovery from surgery
dwarfism
endometriosis

20

How does androgen help with endometriosis?

it helps to reduce pain and inflammation, and also produce local oestrogen to restore hormonal balance

21

What is use of cyproterone?

It's a steroidal antagonist, used for prostate cancer, androgenisation in females

22

What are the adverse effect of cyproterone?

cognitive changes, fatigue, oedema, reduced spermatogenesis

23

How is flutamide different to cyproterone?

It's non-steroidal, selectively block receptors in the prostate

24

What is the use of flutamide?

metastatic prostate cancer

25

What is finasteride?

5a-reductase inhibitor

26

What is finasteride used for?

benign prostatic hypertrophy and hair loss

27

Why does finasteride drive breast enlargement?

It drives the conversion of excess testosterone to oestrogen