Flashcards in Sex Hormone and Disease Deck (27)
What is the action of aromatase
make oestrogen from either androstenedione or testosterone
What are the three oestrogens?
oestriol, oestrone, oestradiol
What is the action of 5a-reductase?
convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone
What can ostrogen therapy be used for?
hypogonadism in children
In adults: amenorrhoea, contraceptive, menopause
How does postmenopausal hormone therapy improve sleep?
It reliefs the flushes that may disturb sleep
T/F Hormone therapy increases the risk of thromboembolism
True, especially oral contraceptives
What is the mechanism of action for oestrogen
Binding to membrane receptor or directly crosses the membrane, then work as a steroid to up or downregulate genes
T/F Progesterone binding will switch on oestrogen receptors
False, oestrogen receptor binding will switch on progesterone receptors to promote growth and differentiation
What are the two partial agonists of oestrogen receptor
At which tissue is tamoxifen a oestrogen receptor antagonist.
breast and CNS
At which tissue is raloxifene an agonist for oestrogen receptor
bone and CV tissue
What is Tamoxifen used for?
palliative treatment of metastatic breast cancer and adjuvant after lumpectomy
What are some adverse effects of tamoxifen?
What is the action of exemestane?
aromatase inhibitor to reduce oestrogen level
What is exemestane used for?
also used to treat breast cancer
What are some side effects of exemestane?
increased fracture risk and bone loss
poorer lipid profile + metabolic syndrome
What effect does androgen have on the body
anabolic and masculinising effects
At which sites is dihydrotestosterone active?
prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymus and skin
What is the therapeutic use of androgen
hypogonadism for male
speed recovery from surgery
How does androgen help with endometriosis?
it helps to reduce pain and inflammation, and also produce local oestrogen to restore hormonal balance
What is use of cyproterone?
It's a steroidal antagonist, used for prostate cancer, androgenisation in females
What are the adverse effect of cyproterone?
cognitive changes, fatigue, oedema, reduced spermatogenesis
How is flutamide different to cyproterone?
It's non-steroidal, selectively block receptors in the prostate
What is the use of flutamide?
metastatic prostate cancer
What is finasteride?
What is finasteride used for?
benign prostatic hypertrophy and hair loss