Flashcards in STI Deck (45)
What are some common presentations of STI
discharges from mouth or genital, genital lesions, warts
What is the typical presentation of Neisseria gonorrhoea in men?
urethral discharge, pain due to clogged up urethra
What are some presentation of Neisseria gonorrhoea with oral sex
T/F Neisseria gonorrhoea is a gram +ve rod
False, it is gram -ve cocci
What is the target adhesion site of Neisseria gonorrhoea
the columnar epithelial cells in urethra or cervix
Why is Neisseria gonorrhoea infection more common in younger women?
Older women have squamous lining on cervix, offering more protection
What does the histology of Neisseria gonorrhoea swab look like?
packed with neutrophils with phagocytosed diplococci
What is the typical presentation of Neisseria gonorrhoea in female?
What is the reason for the increasing resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoea
exchange of genetic material with Neisseria in mouth during oral sex
What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome?
A disseminated symptom of gonorrhoea, which involves bacteria ascending up the fallopian tube to infect around the liver
T/F Gonorrhoea is the most common STI
False, it is second to Chlamydia
What is the presentation of pelvic inflammatory disease?
tubal scarring + increased risk of infertility, fever, pelvic tenderness, discharge
T/F Babies are subjected to gonorrhoea infection if the mum is infected
True, they are exposed during delivery, typically presents with purulent/scarring/perforation of cornea and blindness
Why must we diagnose babies with gonorrhoea before any treatment?
We treat gonorrhoea with IV Cefotaxime, but if it's other bacterial infection, we can just use topical antibiotic
What is a better way to diagnose gonorrhoea (better than swab)
First void specimen
What must we do when we culture Neisseria gonorrhoea
Use selective agar to inhibit normal flora to avoid lost of pathogen in the background
T/F PCR of STI diagnosis routinely combines gonorrhoea and Chlamydia
True. It's not as specific for gonorrhoea as there may be cross reaction with Neisseria spp.
What is the treatment of gonorrhoea
Ceftriaxone (cephelosporin), working on cell wall
Azithromycin, working on 50s ribosome
T/F vaccine is available for Neisseria gonorrhoea
Which part of the Chlamydia cycle is infectious
Elementary bodies, which live outside the cells. Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular organism
What is serovar (of Chlamydia)
they are serological variants, a way to characterise Chlamydia infections
What does the elementary body turn into once it infects a cell?
reticulate body, which replicates and rupture into large numbers
What is the presentation of Chlamydia in men
dysuria, meatal erythema (redness at tip of penis), clear urethral discharge, testicular pain, prostatitis
What is the difference between discharge from Chlamydia and gonorrhoea?
Chlamydia - clear
Gonorrhoea - thick and obvious
Chlamydia is usually asymptomatic in women, but what are the possible symptoms?
vaginal discharge, dysuria, pelvic pain if bacteria ascends
Describe the process of Chlamydia Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
Chlamydia can spread to local lymph nodes in a few weeks to cause a lot of suppuration. If not drained, they can cause fistula
What are the possible symptoms of a baby infected with Chlamydia during delivery
conjunctivitis within 2 weeks
delayed pneumonia with staccato cough
Why do we do follow up tests with patients treated for Chlamydia
there is a chance of reinfection or there may be a lack of response to initial treatment
What are the options of treatment Chlamydia
Azithromycin or Doxycycline
Avoid doxycycline for pregnant women