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ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Congential Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congential Heart Disease Deck (92)
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61

What may coarction of the aorta lead to?

An increase in afterload on the left ventricle

62

What does an increase in afterload on the left ventricle lead to?

Left ventricular hypertrophy

63

What is the effect of a coarctation of the aorta?

Blood flow to the body is reduced

64

Where is blood flow not reduced when there is a coarctation of the aorta?

The head and upper limb

65

Why is the blood supply to the head and upper limb not affected when there is coarctation of the aorta?

Because the vessels to these areas usually emerge proximal to coarctation

66

What does extent of the symptoms of coarctation of the aorta depend on?

The severity of the coarctation

67

What may happen with severe coarctation of the aorta?

Infant may present with symptoms of heart failure shortly after birth

68

What may happen in mild cases of coarctation of the aorta?

Defect may be detected in adult life

69

What are the symptoms of coarctation of aorta?

Femoral pulses weak and delayed 
Upper body hypertension

70

Give 4 cyanotic heart defects?

Tetralogy of Fallot 
Tricuspid Atresia
Transposition of the great arteries 
Hypoplastic left heart

71

What is Tetralogy of Fallot?

A group of 4 lesions occuring together as a result of a single developmental defect placing outflow portions of the interventricular septum too far in anterior and cephalad directions

72

What are the 4 abnormalities in Tetralogy of Fallot?

VSD
Overriding aorta 
Pulmonary stenosis 
Right ventricular hypertrophy

73

To what degree are pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy present in Tetralogy of Fallot?

Variable

74

What does pulmonary stenosis cause?

Persistance of foetal right ventricular hypertrophy

75

Why does pulmonary stenosis cause right ventricular hypertrophy?

As the right ventricle must operate at a much higher pressure to pump blood through the pulmonary artery

76

What aspects of the Tetralogy of Fallot allow right to left shunting?

Increased pressure on the right side of the heart 
VSD
Overriding aorta

77

What is the result of right to left shunting?

A mix of deoxygenated blood with oxygenated blood going into the systemic circulation, resulting in cyanosis

78

What does the magnitude of the shunt and the severity in Tetralogy of Fallot depend on?

The severity of pulmonary stenosis

79

When does Tetralogy of Fallot present?

May present in infancy 
Mild cases can present in adulthood

80

What is Tricuspid Atresia?

Lack of development of tricuspid valve

81

What is the problem with tricuspid atresia?

It leaves no inlet to the right ventricle

82

What must be present in tricuspid atresia?

A complete right to left shunt of all blood returning to the right atrium (ASD or PFO) and a VSD or PDA to allow blood flow to the lungs- there needs to be a right to left shunt of the entire venous return

83

What does transposition of the great arteries result in?

Two unconnected parallel circulations, instead of two in series

84

What has happened in transposition of the great arteries?

The right ventricle is connected to aorta and the left ventricle to pulmonary trunk

85

What is the prognosis for a patient with transposition of the great arteries?

Condition not compatible with life after birth, unless a shunt exists to allow to two circulations to communicate

86

How can a patient with transposition of the great arteries be treated?

A shunt must be maintained, or created immediately following birth to sustain life until surgical correction can be made

87

What shunt can allow a patient with transposition of great arteries to survive until after birth?

Ductus arteriosus can be maintained patent and/or an atrial septal defect formed

88

What happens in hypoplastic left heart?

The left ventricle and ascending aorta fail to develop properly, meaning the ascending aorta is very small

89

What must happen when there is a hypoplastic left heart?

The right ventricle supports systemic circulation

90

What is also present with hypoplastic left heart?

PFO or ASD