Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (81):
1

What do all connective tissue have in common?

Specialized cells, ground substance, and fibers

2

What is between epithelial and connective tissue?

Basement Membrane

3

Fibroblasts

Fixed cell in connective tissue that synthesizes fibers

4

Fixed macrophages

Fixed cells. Irregular shaped. Used to engulf invaders and damaged cells

5

Adipocytes

Fixed cells. They are fat cells primarily used for lipid storage

6

Mesenchymal cells

Fixed Stem cells, used to respond to local injury or infection by dividing to produce new cells. Known for differentiation

7

Melanocytes

Fixed cells that produce melanin. Gives tissue a dark color.

8

What are the wandering cell names?

Free macrophages, mast cells, lymphocytes, microphages

9

Free macrophages

Wandering cells that provide immune response.

10

Monocytes

Free macrophages when in the blood

11

Mast cells

Wandering cells in connective tissues. They are found near blood vessels. Secrete histamine and heparin to stimulate local inflammation

12

What secretions come out of mast cells?

Histamine and heparin

13

Lymphocytes

Wandering cells that migrate through the body and increase where ever tissue damage occurs

14

What is the form of lymphocytes that produce antibodies?

Plasma cells

15

Microphages

Wandering cells that migrate through the body and respond to chemicals released by macrophages and mast cells. They are also phagocytic

16

What are examples of microphages?

Neutrophils and eosinophils

17

What are the three types of connective tissues?

Connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissue, and supporting connective tissue

18

Collagen fibers

Thick thread like composed of collagen and occurring in long parallel bundles. Withstands force along the axis. Don't stain well. Unbranched

19

Elastic fibers

Thinner fibers that form complex networks. Branched. Stretches. Contain elastin. Stretch, wavy

20

Reticular fibers

Highly branched and have delicate supporting networks. Resist forces applied from many directions. Branched, complex 3D network that support parenchyma of the organs they are in.

21

Where are reticular fibers found?

Spleen and liver where they stabilize cells, blood vessels, and nerves despite the pull of gravity

22

Parenchyma

Distinctive functional cells

23

What is the first connective tissue to appear in a developing embryo?

Mesenchyme

24

What does Mesenchyme do?

Gives rise to all other connective tissue

25

Mucoid connective tissue

Found in many regions of the embryo it is loose connective

26

What are the categories of connective tissue proper?

Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue

27

What are the three types of loose connective tissue?

Areolar connective tissue, adipose connective tissue, and reticular connective tissue

28

Loose connective tissue

Supports epithelia, fills spaces between organs, provide cushioning, support blood vessels, nerves, and store lipids. Provide route for the diffusion of materials

29

Areolar connective tissue

Found below the epithelium and made up of mostly fibroblasts with elastic and cartilage fibers. Extensive circulatory supply. Allows for independent movement

30

Where is Areolar connective tissue found?

In the dermis, between muscles. around blood vessels, nerves, joints. Covered by the epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts

31

Adipose tissue

Has modified fibroblasts that store fat and become swollen. Provides padding, cushions shocks, insulates, and stores energy.

32

What are the two types of adipose tissue?

White fat and brown fat

33

White fat

Common under skin, buttocks, sides, and breast. A also bony sockets behind the eyes, surrounds kidneys, and dominates loose connective tissue in the pericardial and abdominal cavities

34

Brown fat

More abundant in infants. Important temp regulator.

35

Reticular connective tissue

Reticular fibers. Provides supporting framework. Contains many cells

36

Where is reticular connective tissue found?

Stroma of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

37

Dense regular connective tissue make up

Thickly packed collagenous fibers in a parallel arrangement

38

Where can one find dense connective tissue?

Tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, covering skeletal muscle

39

What are functions of dense regular connective tissue?

Firm attachment, conducts pull of muscles, reduces friction between muscles, stabilizes positions of bones

40

Dense irregular connective

Tissue that provides strength to areas in which stress is applied to many directions. Forms capsules around organs. Can prevent over expansion

41

Where is dense irregular connective tissue found?

Capsules of visceral organs, periostea, perichondria, nerve and muscle sheaths, dermis

42

Elastic connective tissue

Predominance of elastic fibers with fibroblasts. Stabilizes positions of vertebrae, penis. Provides cushion and shocks. Permits expansion and contraction

43

Where is elastic tissue found?

Walls of aorta, vocal cords, respiratory passages, ligamenta Flava, ligamentum nuchae, underlies transitional epithelium so in bladder

44

Perichondrium

Sets apart cartilage from other tissue.

45

What are the two distinct layers of Perichondrium?

Fibrous layer and cellular layer

46

The fibrous layer of the Perichondrium is made of what kind of tissue?

Dense irregular connective tissue

47

Chondrocytes

Cartilage cells that reside in lacunae

48

What does the fibrous layer of the Perichondrium do?

Provide mechanical support, provide protection, and attaches cartilage to other structures

49

What does the cellular layer in Perichondrium do?

Growth and maintenance

50

Appositional growth

Chondrocytes growth mechanism in which chondroblasts mature and produce the cartilage matrix

51

Interstitial growth

Chondrocytes growth in which it matures within the matrix

52

Three types of cartilage

Hyaline, elastic, and fibrous

53

Hyaline Cartilage

Cartilage with mostly collagen fibers. Weakest. Provides flexible support and reduces friction between bony surfaces

54

Where is hyaline cartilage found?

Tracheal rings, costal cartilages of ribs, bone surfaces at synovial joints.

55

Fibrocartilage

Tough cartilage that resists compression, prevents bone to bone contact and limits relative movement.

56

Where is Fibrocartilage found?

Intervertebral discs, menisci of knee, and symphysis pubis

57

Damage in what cartilage can interfere with movement?

Fibrouscartilage

58

Elastic cartilage

Supported by elastic fibers making it resilient and flexible. Arranged irregular. Stains dark.

59

Where is elastic cartilage found?

Pinna, epiglottis, auditory canal, tip of nose.

60

What fiber makes up 1/3 of the bones matrix?

Collagenous fibers

61

What are the fixed cells of connective tissue?

Fibroblasts, fixed macrophages, adipocytes, mesenchymal cells, melanocytes

62

What are bones sheathed by?

Periosteum

63

What does the periosteum do for bone?

Assists in attaching bones to surrounding tissues, tendons, and ligaments. Cellular layer helps in repair

64

What is something that differentiates bone from cartilage?

Can undergo repairs on a regular basis and can respond to stresses

65

Canaliculi

Form branching networks for exchange of materials between blood vessels and osteocytes

66

Epithelia and connective tissue form what?

Membranes

67

What are the four types of membrane?

Mucous membrane, serous membrane, cutaneous membrane, and synovial membrane

68

Mucous membranes

Communicate with exterior in digestive, respiratory, and reproductive, and urinary tract. It resists the entry of pathogens

69

What is the areolar tissue component of mucous membranes called?

Lamina propia. It connects the epithelium to underlying structures, provides support of blood vessels

70

Serous Membranes

Line Subdivisions of the ventral body cavity.

71

What membrane consists of mesothelium supported by areolar connective tissue?

Serous membrane

72

What are the three serous membranes?

Pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium

73

What is the fluid formed on surfaces of the serous membrane?

Transudate. Must be limited as its main function is to reduce friction

74

Cutaneous membrane

The skin. Thick, waterproof, and dry

75

Where is Synovial membrane found

Found at joints of significant movement.

76

What connective and epithelial tissues make up the synovial membrane?

Areolar and squamous or cuboidal cells

77

How does the synovial membrane differ from epithelial
?

No basal/reticular lamina, gaps between adjacent cells, the cells are connective tissue cells

78

What does synovial fluid do?

Lubricates the cartilages in the joint, distributes oxygen and nutrients, cushions shocks at the joint

79

Superficial fascia

Hypodermis. Areolar tissue and connective tissue. Located between skin and organs. Allows skin and organs to move independently

80

Deep fascia

After the superficial fascia, made of dense regular connective tissue. Interwoven. Bound to capsules, tendons, ligaments. Ties structural elements together

81

Subserous fascia

Between serous membranes and deep fascia. Made of areolar tissue. Prevents muscle or organ movements from disrupting serous membrane lining