Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (81):
What do all connective tissue have in common?
Specialized cells, ground substance, and fibers
What is between epithelial and connective tissue?
Fixed cell in connective tissue that synthesizes fibers
Fixed cells. Irregular shaped. Used to engulf invaders and damaged cells
Fixed cells. They are fat cells primarily used for lipid storage
Fixed Stem cells, used to respond to local injury or infection by dividing to produce new cells. Known for differentiation
Fixed cells that produce melanin. Gives tissue a dark color.
What are the wandering cell names?
Free macrophages, mast cells, lymphocytes, microphages
Wandering cells that provide immune response.
Free macrophages when in the blood
Wandering cells in connective tissues. They are found near blood vessels. Secrete histamine and heparin to stimulate local inflammation
What secretions come out of mast cells?
Histamine and heparin
Wandering cells that migrate through the body and increase where ever tissue damage occurs
What is the form of lymphocytes that produce antibodies?
Wandering cells that migrate through the body and respond to chemicals released by macrophages and mast cells. They are also phagocytic
What are examples of microphages?
Neutrophils and eosinophils
What are the three types of connective tissues?
Connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissue, and supporting connective tissue
Thick thread like composed of collagen and occurring in long parallel bundles. Withstands force along the axis. Don't stain well. Unbranched
Thinner fibers that form complex networks. Branched. Stretches. Contain elastin. Stretch, wavy
Highly branched and have delicate supporting networks. Resist forces applied from many directions. Branched, complex 3D network that support parenchyma of the organs they are in.
Where are reticular fibers found?
Spleen and liver where they stabilize cells, blood vessels, and nerves despite the pull of gravity
Distinctive functional cells
What is the first connective tissue to appear in a developing embryo?
What does Mesenchyme do?
Gives rise to all other connective tissue
Mucoid connective tissue
Found in many regions of the embryo it is loose connective
What are the categories of connective tissue proper?
Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue
What are the three types of loose connective tissue?
Areolar connective tissue, adipose connective tissue, and reticular connective tissue
Loose connective tissue
Supports epithelia, fills spaces between organs, provide cushioning, support blood vessels, nerves, and store lipids. Provide route for the diffusion of materials
Areolar connective tissue
Found below the epithelium and made up of mostly fibroblasts with elastic and cartilage fibers. Extensive circulatory supply. Allows for independent movement
Where is Areolar connective tissue found?
In the dermis, between muscles. around blood vessels, nerves, joints. Covered by the epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts
Has modified fibroblasts that store fat and become swollen. Provides padding, cushions shocks, insulates, and stores energy.
What are the two types of adipose tissue?
White fat and brown fat
Common under skin, buttocks, sides, and breast. A also bony sockets behind the eyes, surrounds kidneys, and dominates loose connective tissue in the pericardial and abdominal cavities
More abundant in infants. Important temp regulator.
Reticular connective tissue
Reticular fibers. Provides supporting framework. Contains many cells
Where is reticular connective tissue found?
Stroma of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow
Dense regular connective tissue make up
Thickly packed collagenous fibers in a parallel arrangement
Where can one find dense connective tissue?
Tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, covering skeletal muscle
What are functions of dense regular connective tissue?
Firm attachment, conducts pull of muscles, reduces friction between muscles, stabilizes positions of bones
Dense irregular connective
Tissue that provides strength to areas in which stress is applied to many directions. Forms capsules around organs. Can prevent over expansion
Where is dense irregular connective tissue found?
Capsules of visceral organs, periostea, perichondria, nerve and muscle sheaths, dermis
Elastic connective tissue
Predominance of elastic fibers with fibroblasts. Stabilizes positions of vertebrae, penis. Provides cushion and shocks. Permits expansion and contraction
Where is elastic tissue found?
Walls of aorta, vocal cords, respiratory passages, ligamenta Flava, ligamentum nuchae, underlies transitional epithelium so in bladder
Sets apart cartilage from other tissue.
What are the two distinct layers of Perichondrium?
Fibrous layer and cellular layer
The fibrous layer of the Perichondrium is made of what kind of tissue?
Dense irregular connective tissue
Cartilage cells that reside in lacunae
What does the fibrous layer of the Perichondrium do?
Provide mechanical support, provide protection, and attaches cartilage to other structures
What does the cellular layer in Perichondrium do?
Growth and maintenance
Chondrocytes growth mechanism in which chondroblasts mature and produce the cartilage matrix
Chondrocytes growth in which it matures within the matrix
Three types of cartilage
Hyaline, elastic, and fibrous
Cartilage with mostly collagen fibers. Weakest. Provides flexible support and reduces friction between bony surfaces
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Tracheal rings, costal cartilages of ribs, bone surfaces at synovial joints.
Tough cartilage that resists compression, prevents bone to bone contact and limits relative movement.
Where is Fibrocartilage found?
Intervertebral discs, menisci of knee, and symphysis pubis
Damage in what cartilage can interfere with movement?
Supported by elastic fibers making it resilient and flexible. Arranged irregular. Stains dark.
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Pinna, epiglottis, auditory canal, tip of nose.
What fiber makes up 1/3 of the bones matrix?
What are the fixed cells of connective tissue?
Fibroblasts, fixed macrophages, adipocytes, mesenchymal cells, melanocytes
What are bones sheathed by?
What does the periosteum do for bone?
Assists in attaching bones to surrounding tissues, tendons, and ligaments. Cellular layer helps in repair
What is something that differentiates bone from cartilage?
Can undergo repairs on a regular basis and can respond to stresses
Form branching networks for exchange of materials between blood vessels and osteocytes
Epithelia and connective tissue form what?
What are the four types of membrane?
Mucous membrane, serous membrane, cutaneous membrane, and synovial membrane
Communicate with exterior in digestive, respiratory, and reproductive, and urinary tract. It resists the entry of pathogens
What is the areolar tissue component of mucous membranes called?
Lamina propia. It connects the epithelium to underlying structures, provides support of blood vessels
Line Subdivisions of the ventral body cavity.
What membrane consists of mesothelium supported by areolar connective tissue?
What are the three serous membranes?
Pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium
What is the fluid formed on surfaces of the serous membrane?
Transudate. Must be limited as its main function is to reduce friction
The skin. Thick, waterproof, and dry
Where is Synovial membrane found
Found at joints of significant movement.
What connective and epithelial tissues make up the synovial membrane?
Areolar and squamous or cuboidal cells
How does the synovial membrane differ from epithelial
No basal/reticular lamina, gaps between adjacent cells, the cells are connective tissue cells
What does synovial fluid do?
Lubricates the cartilages in the joint, distributes oxygen and nutrients, cushions shocks at the joint
Hypodermis. Areolar tissue and connective tissue. Located between skin and organs. Allows skin and organs to move independently
After the superficial fascia, made of dense regular connective tissue. Interwoven. Bound to capsules, tendons, ligaments. Ties structural elements together