Flashcards in Repro Deck (149):
What are gametes?
What does fertilization produce?
What are gonads?
Reproductive organs that produce gametes and hormones
What are gubernaculum testis?
Cord of connective tissue and muscle fibers that extend from inferior part of each testis to posterior wall of a small inferior pocket of peritoneum. As development proceeds, testis are held in position
What happens in the 7th month of production in males?
Hormones cause contraction of gubernaculum testis and changes their relative position. This is descent of testes
After descent of testes, BVs, vas deferens, and nerves stay in what?
What are inguinal canals?
Narrow canals linking scrotal chambers with peritoneal cavity
Perineal raphe length
Middle of peritoneum from anus, across scrotum, and along anterior surface of penis
What does scrotal cavity separate?
Inner surface of scrotum from outer surface of testis
What is tunica vaginalis?
Serous membrane that lines scrotal cavity covering outside of testis. Reduces friction
What does tunica albuginea form?
It is directly on testis and forms septa
What does the scrotum consist of?
Thin layer of skin and superficial fascia
Describe dartos muscle
Smooth muscle always in tonic contraction underlying scrotum making wrinkled appearance. Assists in elevation
Describe cremaster muscle
Skeletal muscle that elevates testis.
When does contraction of cremaster occur?
During sexual arousal and response to changes in temp
What nerves supply the scrotum?
What three arteries supply the scrotum?
Internal pudenal artery (from internal iliac), external pudenal ( femoral a), and cremaster branch of inferior epigastric artery (from external iliac a)
What best defines the mediastinum of testes?
Septa created by tunica albuginea
Septa partition testis into
What are present in lobules?
Where does sperm production occur?
Go from septa to efferent ductules
Septa, lobules, seminiferous tubules, straight tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules
What does the straight tubule enter?
Mediastinum of testis
What are rete testis formed by?
Interconnected straight tubules
What connects rete testis to the epididymis?
What is another name for leydig cells?
Where are leydig cells?
In loose connective tissue in external spaces between tubules
What is the function of leydig cells?
What is spermatogenesis?
Process of producing sperm cells beginning at outermost layer of cells in seminiferous tubules
How many spermatids do we get per spermatocyte?
What is spermatogonia?
Most outer layer cells in seminiferous tubules. Undergo mitosis as stem cells to begin spermatogenesis. These form during embryonic development but are dormant until puberty
What is difference between meiosis and mitosis?
Meiosis makes individual and mitosis makes multiple pairs
Are primary spermatocytes haploid or diploid?
What does primary spermatocyte go through to produce secondary spermatocyte?
What does secondary spermatocyte go through to produce spermatids?
What is the process of turning spermatids into spermatozoa called?
Leydig cells make testosterone in response to which hormone?
What hormones stimulate spermatogenesis?
Testosterone and FSH
What are spermatocyte undergoing meiosis called?
What are spermatids in during Spermiogenesis?
What marks the end of Spermiogenesis?
Detachment of sperm cell from nurse cell into lumen of seminiferous tubules
How long does Spermiogenesis take?
How does nurse cells maintain blood testis barrier?
Tight junctions. Isolate lumen portion of seminiferous tubules from surrounding interstitial fluid
What is the lumen portion of the seminiferous tubules rich in?
Potassium, androgens, estrogens, amino acids
What are nurse cells stimulated by?
FSH and testosterone
What is inhibin?
Secreted by nurse cells it depresses FSH and GnRH allowing faster amount of sperm production
What does androgen binding protein do?
Secreted by nurse cells it elevates androgens in tubules stimulating Spermiogenesis
What does the head of a spermatozoa contain?
Acrosomal cap. Which has enzymes involved in fertilization
What does the neck of a spermatozoon contain relating to mitosis?
Centrioles of original spermatids
What does the middle piece have that contributes to moving the flagella?
Mitochondria are located in what region of the spermatozoon?
What is the primary source of nutrient for spermatozoon?
What are structure the spermatozoon does not have?
ER, Golgi, lysosomes, perioxsosomes
What is the lumen of the epididymis lined with?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What part of the epididymis receives spermatozoa from efferent ducts?
What part of the epididymis is involved in sperm storage?
How does epididymis adjust composition of fluid produced by seminiferous tubules?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium increase surface area for reabsorption and secretion into tubular fluid
How long does it take for spermatozoa to pass through epididymis?
When spermatozoa reaches epididymis what best describes its maturity?
Physically mature but functionally immature
What is capacitation, where does it happen, and what are the steps?
Process by which spermatozoa are mobile and functional within epididymis. The spermatozoa are motile when mixed with section of seminal glands and capable of fertilization when permeability of plasmalemma changes in female reproductive tract
What structure acts as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa?
What prevents premature capacitation?
What kind of contractions propel sperm along vas deferens?
What is the vas deferens lined with?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Can the vas deferens store sperm?
What structures store sperm?
Epididymis and vas deferens
What marks start of ejaculatory duct?
Junction of ampulla with base of seminal gland
What are the functions of accessory glands?
Activating spermatozoa, nutrients for spermatozoa motility, produce buffers for acidic environment entry
What kind of lining does seminal glands have?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What percentage of semen does seminal vesicles contribute?
When does seminal glands discharge?
What part of the nervous system contracts glands and vas deferens?
Secretion from which gland leads to flagellum activation?
What kind of glands does prostate gland have?
Compound tubuloalveolar glands
What kind of epithelium does prostate gland have?
Simple columnar epithelium and pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What percentage of semen does prostate produce
What is seminalplasmin?
Secreted by prostate. Believed to be antibiotic preventing urinary tract infection in males
What epithelium lines bulbourethral glands?
Simple cuboidal and simple columnar
What kind of glands are in bulbourethral glands?
Compound tubuloalveolar glands
What do cowpers gland secrete?
What is the average amount of ejaculate produced?
What secretes smegma?
What best describes the penis in resting state?
Arterial branches are constricted and muscular partitions are tense. Reduces blood flow to erectile tissue
What happens when parasympathetic activation gets to penis?
Smooth muscles relax. Blood vessels dilate, blood flow increases, vascular channels are engorged in blood and erection occurs
What forms the glans of penis?
What are the two steps of semen release?
Ejaculation and emission
What muscles insert if side of penis and stiffen it?
What muscle helps push semen to external urethral orifice and wraps around base of penis?
What is mesovarium?
Thickened fold of broad ligament that supports and stabilizes position of ovary
What is mesosalpinx?
Part of broad ligament that attaches to uterine tube
What best describes recto uterine pouch?
Pocket formed between posterior wall of uterus and anterior surface of colon
What best describes vesicouterine pouch?
Pocket between anterior wall of uterus and posterior wall of urinary bladder
What movement does broad ligament limit?
Side to side movement and rotation
What are ovaries responsible for?
Secretion of hormones and production of ova
What structures stabilize ovary
Mesovarium, ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament
Where is ovarian ligament span?
Lateral wall of uterus to medial surface of ovary
Where is suspensory ligament span?
Lateral surface of ovary to pelvic wall
What ligament do ovarian artery and vein travel through?
What directly coves ovary?
The visceral peritoneum is made of cuboidal epithelium called
What does germinal epithelium overlie?
Tunica albuginea of ovary
Where does production of gametes occur in ovary?
What is oogenesis?
Production of female gametes. Begins at birth, remains dormant until puberty, and ends at menopause
Steps of ovarian cycle starting at oogonia?
Oogonia. Primary oocyte. Primordial follicle. Primary follicle. Secondary follicle. Tertiary follicle. Polar body or secondary oocyte. Secondary oocyte. Ovum if fertilized and nonfunctional polar body
What makes up the primordial ovarian follicle?
Primary oocyte and follicle cells
What triggers ovarian cycle?
What is Zona pellucida?
Space opens up between oocyte and follicular cells at primary follicle
What are granulosa cells?
Follicle cells providing nutrients to oocyte in primary follicle
When does thecal cells form?
As follicular cells thicken and multiply in primary follicle
What cells work together to secrete estrogen?
Thecal cells and granulosa cells
What is the most important estrogen?
What best describes secondary follicle?
Follicle wall thickens and follicular fluid is secreted and accumulates. Separating cells of inner and outer layer of follicle
When does teritary follicle form?
10-14 days into ovarian cycle
Where is the oocyte in the teritary follicle?
Antrum surrounded by granulosa cells
Why do we get a polar body and secondary oocyte from tertiary follicle?
Since the cytoplasm of primary oocyte is not evenly distributed
If the secondary oocyte is fertilized, what phase does it go through and what does it become?
Metaphase of meiosis II and it becomes an ovum
What is corona radiata?
What oocyte and follicular cells are called when they lose connection with follicular wall and drift in Antrum
What day does ovulation occur?
Day 14 of 28 day cycle
What keeps corona radiata attached to ovary without direct movement?
What stimulates ovulation?
Rise in LH
What does corpus luteum secrete?
What forms corpus luteum?
Follicular cells invading empty follicle
What signals formation of corpus albicans?
Progesterone falls, estrogen falls. Corpus luteum degrades and fibroblasts invade it
What ends ovarian cycle?
Disintegration of corpus luteum
How long is luteal phase?
14 days. Begins at ovulation, ends at death of corpus luteum
Decline in progesterone and estrogen stimulate what hormone release?
GnRH which causes rise in FSH and LH
What is atresia?
Degrade of secondary follicles
What kind of tissue is found in uterine tube?
Ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar
Where do unfertilized oocyte deteriorate?
How long does it take for oocyte to travel infundibulum to uterine chamber?
What is the normal bend of the uterus called?
What is span uterosacral ligament?
Lateral side of uterus to anterior sacrum. Keeping uterus from moving anteriorly and inferiorly
Round ligament of uterus
Lateral of uterus to ending in CT of external genitalia. They restrict posterior movement
Extend from base of uterus and vagina to lateral wall of pelvis preventing inferior movement
Where does uterine arteries come from?
Internal iliac arteries and ovarian arteries
Arteries in myometrium superficial to deep
Uterine artery. Arcuate artery. Radial artery. Straight artery. Spiral artery.
What does the spiral artery supply?
What does SRY and TDF?
At what week will you see penis on fetus?
What is the sexually indifferent stage in embryo?
5 to 6 weeks
What does the mesonephric duct become?
Fallopian tubes and secretes MIF
What does the paramesonephric duct become?
What can the genital tubercle become?
What can the urogenital fold become?
Labia minora and scrotal raphe
What does the labioscrotal fold become?
Labia majora and scrotum
At 6 weeks what can you see on embryo?
Genital tubercle,urogenital fold, labioscrotal fold. Tail
At 8 weeks what can you see on embryo?
Glans, urogenital fold, labioscrotal fold, phallus
Describe congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Will have penis, scrotum, but no testes. No Y chromosome will have ovary no MIF