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Flashcards in Repro Deck (149):
1

What are gametes?

Reproductive cells

2

What does fertilization produce?

Zygote

3

What are gonads?

Reproductive organs that produce gametes and hormones

4

What are gubernaculum testis?

Cord of connective tissue and muscle fibers that extend from inferior part of each testis to posterior wall of a small inferior pocket of peritoneum. As development proceeds, testis are held in position

5

What happens in the 7th month of production in males?

Hormones cause contraction of gubernaculum testis and changes their relative position. This is descent of testes

6

After descent of testes, BVs, vas deferens, and nerves stay in what?

Spermatic cord

7

What are inguinal canals?

Narrow canals linking scrotal chambers with peritoneal cavity

8

Perineal raphe length

Middle of peritoneum from anus, across scrotum, and along anterior surface of penis

9

What does scrotal cavity separate?

Inner surface of scrotum from outer surface of testis

10

What is tunica vaginalis?

Serous membrane that lines scrotal cavity covering outside of testis. Reduces friction

11

What does tunica albuginea form?

It is directly on testis and forms septa

12

What does the scrotum consist of?

Thin layer of skin and superficial fascia

13

Describe dartos muscle

Smooth muscle always in tonic contraction underlying scrotum making wrinkled appearance. Assists in elevation

14

Describe cremaster muscle

Skeletal muscle that elevates testis.

15

When does contraction of cremaster occur?

During sexual arousal and response to changes in temp

16

What nerves supply the scrotum?

Hypogastric plexus

17

What three arteries supply the scrotum?

Internal pudenal artery (from internal iliac), external pudenal ( femoral a), and cremaster branch of inferior epigastric artery (from external iliac a)

18

What best defines the mediastinum of testes?

Septa created by tunica albuginea

19

Septa partition testis into

Lobules

20

What are present in lobules?

Seminiferous tubules

21

Where does sperm production occur?

Seminiferous tubules

22

Go from septa to efferent ductules

Septa, lobules, seminiferous tubules, straight tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules

23

What does the straight tubule enter?

Mediastinum of testis

24

What are rete testis formed by?

Interconnected straight tubules

25

What connects rete testis to the epididymis?

Efferent ductules

26

What is another name for leydig cells?

Interstitial cells

27

Where are leydig cells?

In loose connective tissue in external spaces between tubules

28

What is the function of leydig cells?

Produce androgens

29

What is spermatogenesis?

Process of producing sperm cells beginning at outermost layer of cells in seminiferous tubules

30

How many spermatids do we get per spermatocyte?

4

31

What is spermatogonia?

Most outer layer cells in seminiferous tubules. Undergo mitosis as stem cells to begin spermatogenesis. These form during embryonic development but are dormant until puberty

32

What is difference between meiosis and mitosis?

Meiosis makes individual and mitosis makes multiple pairs

33

Are primary spermatocytes haploid or diploid?

Haploid

34

What does primary spermatocyte go through to produce secondary spermatocyte?

Meiosis I

35

What does secondary spermatocyte go through to produce spermatids?

Meiosis II

36

What is the process of turning spermatids into spermatozoa called?

Spermiogenesis

37

Leydig cells make testosterone in response to which hormone?

Luteinizing hormone

38

What hormones stimulate spermatogenesis?

Testosterone and FSH

39

What are spermatocyte undergoing meiosis called?

Spermatogonia

40

What are spermatids in during Spermiogenesis?

Nurse cells

41

What marks the end of Spermiogenesis?

Detachment of sperm cell from nurse cell into lumen of seminiferous tubules

42

How long does Spermiogenesis take?

9 weeks

43

How does nurse cells maintain blood testis barrier?

Tight junctions. Isolate lumen portion of seminiferous tubules from surrounding interstitial fluid

44

What is the lumen portion of the seminiferous tubules rich in?

Potassium, androgens, estrogens, amino acids

45

What are nurse cells stimulated by?

FSH and testosterone

46

What is inhibin?

Secreted by nurse cells it depresses FSH and GnRH allowing faster amount of sperm production

47

What does androgen binding protein do?

Secreted by nurse cells it elevates androgens in tubules stimulating Spermiogenesis

48

What does the head of a spermatozoa contain?

Acrosomal cap. Which has enzymes involved in fertilization

49

What does the neck of a spermatozoon contain relating to mitosis?

Centrioles of original spermatids

50

What does the middle piece have that contributes to moving the flagella?

Mitochondria

51

Mitochondria are located in what region of the spermatozoon?

Neck

52

What is the primary source of nutrient for spermatozoon?

Fructose

53

What are structure the spermatozoon does not have?

ER, Golgi, lysosomes, perioxsosomes

54

What is the lumen of the epididymis lined with?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

55

What part of the epididymis receives spermatozoa from efferent ducts?

Head

56

What part of the epididymis is involved in sperm storage?

Tail

57

How does epididymis adjust composition of fluid produced by seminiferous tubules?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium increase surface area for reabsorption and secretion into tubular fluid

58

How long does it take for spermatozoa to pass through epididymis?

2 weeks

59

When spermatozoa reaches epididymis what best describes its maturity?

Physically mature but functionally immature

60

What is capacitation, where does it happen, and what are the steps?

Process by which spermatozoa are mobile and functional within epididymis. The spermatozoa are motile when mixed with section of seminal glands and capable of fertilization when permeability of plasmalemma changes in female reproductive tract

61

What structure acts as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa?

Epididymis

62

What prevents premature capacitation?

Epididymis

63

What kind of contractions propel sperm along vas deferens?

Peristaltic contractions

64

What is the vas deferens lined with?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

65

Can the vas deferens store sperm?

Yes

66

What structures store sperm?

Epididymis and vas deferens

67

What marks start of ejaculatory duct?

Junction of ampulla with base of seminal gland

68

What are the functions of accessory glands?

Activating spermatozoa, nutrients for spermatozoa motility, produce buffers for acidic environment entry

69

What kind of lining does seminal glands have?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

70

What percentage of semen does seminal vesicles contribute?

60%

71

When does seminal glands discharge?

Emission

72

What part of the nervous system contracts glands and vas deferens?

Sympathetic

73

Secretion from which gland leads to flagellum activation?

Seminal gland

74

What kind of glands does prostate gland have?

Compound tubuloalveolar glands

75

What kind of epithelium does prostate gland have?

Simple columnar epithelium and pseudostratified columnar epithelium

76

What percentage of semen does prostate produce

30%

77

What is seminalplasmin?

Secreted by prostate. Believed to be antibiotic preventing urinary tract infection in males

78

What epithelium lines bulbourethral glands?

Simple cuboidal and simple columnar

79

What kind of glands are in bulbourethral glands?

Compound tubuloalveolar glands

80

What do cowpers gland secrete?

Alkaline mucus

81

What is the average amount of ejaculate produced?

2-5mL

82

What secretes smegma?

Preputal glands

83

What best describes the penis in resting state?

Arterial branches are constricted and muscular partitions are tense. Reduces blood flow to erectile tissue

84

What happens when parasympathetic activation gets to penis?

Smooth muscles relax. Blood vessels dilate, blood flow increases, vascular channels are engorged in blood and erection occurs

85

What forms the glans of penis?

Corpus spongiosum

86

What are the two steps of semen release?

Ejaculation and emission

87

What muscles insert if side of penis and stiffen it?

Ischiocavernous muscle

88

What muscle helps push semen to external urethral orifice and wraps around base of penis?

Bulboongiosus muscle

89

What is mesovarium?

Thickened fold of broad ligament that supports and stabilizes position of ovary

90

What is mesosalpinx?

Part of broad ligament that attaches to uterine tube

91

What best describes recto uterine pouch?

Pocket formed between posterior wall of uterus and anterior surface of colon

92

What best describes vesicouterine pouch?

Pocket between anterior wall of uterus and posterior wall of urinary bladder

93

What movement does broad ligament limit?

Side to side movement and rotation

94

What are ovaries responsible for?

Secretion of hormones and production of ova

95

What structures stabilize ovary

Mesovarium, ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament

96

Where is ovarian ligament span?

Lateral wall of uterus to medial surface of ovary

97

Where is suspensory ligament span?

Lateral surface of ovary to pelvic wall

98

What ligament do ovarian artery and vein travel through?

Suspensory ligament

99

What directly coves ovary?

Visceral peritoneum

100

The visceral peritoneum is made of cuboidal epithelium called

Germinal epithelium

101

What does germinal epithelium overlie?

Tunica albuginea of ovary

102

Where does production of gametes occur in ovary?

Ovarian cortex

103

What is oogenesis?

Production of female gametes. Begins at birth, remains dormant until puberty, and ends at menopause

104

Steps of ovarian cycle starting at oogonia?

Oogonia. Primary oocyte. Primordial follicle. Primary follicle. Secondary follicle. Tertiary follicle. Polar body or secondary oocyte. Secondary oocyte. Ovum if fertilized and nonfunctional polar body

105

What makes up the primordial ovarian follicle?

Primary oocyte and follicle cells

106

What triggers ovarian cycle?

FSH

107

What is Zona pellucida?

Space opens up between oocyte and follicular cells at primary follicle

108

What are granulosa cells?

Follicle cells providing nutrients to oocyte in primary follicle

109

When does thecal cells form?

As follicular cells thicken and multiply in primary follicle

110

What cells work together to secrete estrogen?

Thecal cells and granulosa cells

111

What is the most important estrogen?

Estradiol

112

What best describes secondary follicle?

Follicle wall thickens and follicular fluid is secreted and accumulates. Separating cells of inner and outer layer of follicle

113

When does teritary follicle form?

10-14 days into ovarian cycle

114

Where is the oocyte in the teritary follicle?

Antrum surrounded by granulosa cells

115

Why do we get a polar body and secondary oocyte from tertiary follicle?

Since the cytoplasm of primary oocyte is not evenly distributed

116

If the secondary oocyte is fertilized, what phase does it go through and what does it become?

Metaphase of meiosis II and it becomes an ovum

117

What is corona radiata?

What oocyte and follicular cells are called when they lose connection with follicular wall and drift in Antrum

118

What day does ovulation occur?

Day 14 of 28 day cycle

119

What keeps corona radiata attached to ovary without direct movement?

Follicular fluid

120

What stimulates ovulation?

Rise in LH

121

What does corpus luteum secrete?

Progesterone

122

What forms corpus luteum?

Follicular cells invading empty follicle

123

What signals formation of corpus albicans?

Progesterone falls, estrogen falls. Corpus luteum degrades and fibroblasts invade it

124

What ends ovarian cycle?

Disintegration of corpus luteum

125

How long is luteal phase?

14 days. Begins at ovulation, ends at death of corpus luteum

126

Decline in progesterone and estrogen stimulate what hormone release?

GnRH which causes rise in FSH and LH

127

What is atresia?

Degrade of secondary follicles

128

What kind of tissue is found in uterine tube?

Ciliated and nonciliated simple columnar

129

Where do unfertilized oocyte deteriorate?

Uterine tubes

130

How long does it take for oocyte to travel infundibulum to uterine chamber?

3-4 days

131

What is the normal bend of the uterus called?

Anteflexion

132

What is span uterosacral ligament?

Lateral side of uterus to anterior sacrum. Keeping uterus from moving anteriorly and inferiorly

133

Round ligament of uterus

Lateral of uterus to ending in CT of external genitalia. They restrict posterior movement

134

Cardinal ligaments

Extend from base of uterus and vagina to lateral wall of pelvis preventing inferior movement

135

Where does uterine arteries come from?

Internal iliac arteries and ovarian arteries

136

Arteries in myometrium superficial to deep

Uterine artery. Arcuate artery. Radial artery. Straight artery. Spiral artery.

137

What does the spiral artery supply?

Stratum functionalis

138

What does SRY and TDF?

Testes

139

At what week will you see penis on fetus?

12th week

140

What is the sexually indifferent stage in embryo?

5 to 6 weeks

141

What does the mesonephric duct become?

Fallopian tubes and secretes MIF

142

What does the paramesonephric duct become?

Female structures

143

What can the genital tubercle become?

Penis/uterus

144

What can the urogenital fold become?

Labia minora and scrotal raphe

145

What does the labioscrotal fold become?

Labia majora and scrotum

146

At 6 weeks what can you see on embryo?

Genital tubercle,urogenital fold, labioscrotal fold. Tail

147

At 8 weeks what can you see on embryo?

Glans, urogenital fold, labioscrotal fold, phallus

148

Describe congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Will have penis, scrotum, but no testes. No Y chromosome will have ovary no MIF

149

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

No testosterone receptors. Very high levels of testosterone in blood. XY individual. Infertile. Testes inside, female outside