Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (70):
1

Function of the papillary layer

Nourishes and supports the epidermis

2

What are the accessory structures?

Hair follicles, exocrine glands, and nails

3

What are the two types of cutaneous membrane?

Epidermis and dermis

4

What are some functions of the integumentary system?

Physical protection, synthesis/storage of lipids, coordination of immune response, sensory information, synthesis of vitamin D3, excretion, thermoregulation

5

What are the layers of the epidermis (deep to superficial)?

Stratum basale, stratum spinousum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

6

Characteristics of stratum corneum

Most superficial, flattened dead cells, thick plasmalemma, no organelles,relatively dry, protects against bacteria, keratinization

7

Characteristics of stratus lucidum

Only on thick skin, appears glassy, lack organelles, keratin filaments that are oriented parallel, flattened nuclei

8

Characteristics of stratum granulosum

Most superficial layer of skin in which all cells have a nucleus, make water resistant layer, where calluses stem from, formation of keratohyalin, formation of keratin

9

What forms calluses?

Increased friction of the skin stimulates an increased rate of synthesis for keratin and keratohyalin within the stratum granulosum

10

Characteristics of stratum spinosum

Where cells begin to differentiate into a keratinocyte, thickest layer for support, tonofibrils, melanocytes, langerhans cells

11

Tonofibrils

Begin and end at the macula adherens, they connect and strengthen cell junctions

12

What are desmosomes of the stratum spinosum called?

Macula adherens

13

What ties keratinocytes and stratum spinosum together?

Macula adherens and tonofibrils

14

Characteristics of the stratum basale

Deepest epidermal layer, contain stem cells, melanocytes, and merkel cells. Where cell division occurs

15

What are the cells of the epidermis?

Basal cells, keratinocytes, merkel, and langerhans

16

What is the cutaneous plexus?

Artery and vein in the hypodermis

17

What is the other name for the hypodermis?

Subcutaneous layer

18

What loose connective tissue make up the papillary layer?

Areolar connective tissue

19

What kind of tissue makes up the reticular layer?

Dense irregular tissue

20

Why is dense irregular tissue used in the dermis?

It can be stretched in many directions

21

What are epidermal ridges?

Found in stratum basale. Genetically determined they are our fingerprints. They increase surface area of the ski and increase friction for a firm grasp.

22

Dermal papillae

Projections of the dermis towards the epidermis

23

Melanosomes

Intracellular vesicles with melanin that color keratinocytes until destroyed by lysosomes.

24

Where does the Melanosome transfer occur in light skin individuals?

Stratum basale and stratum spinosum causing cells of the superficial layers to lose pigmentation

25

Where does Melanosome transfer occur in dark skin individuals?

Occurs in stratum basale, stratum spinosum, and stratum granulosum making skin darker and more persistent

26

Subpapillary plexus

Small arteries enter a branching network in the papillary layer

27

What are two reasons blood circulation must be regulated in the skin?

Thermoregulation and equal distribution to other organs

28

Tactile discs

Touch receptors of the skin

29

Pacinian Corpsucle

Deep pressure and vibration. Located in the reticular layer

30

Meissners Corpsucle

Light touch sensation. In papillary region

31

Ruffini Corpsucle

Nerve for stretching. Between papillary and reticular layer. Chili pepper in diagram

32

Merkel cells

Located in the epidermis. Fine touch in stratum basale. Yellow and star shaped in the model

33

What are the names of the tactile discs (tactile receptors)?

Pacinian Corpsucle, Ruffini Corpsucle, Meissners Corpsucle, and Merkel cells

34

What are functions of the subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)?

Allowing independent movement between skin and tissues, energy reserve (for infants), shock absorb (for infants), useful method for injecting drugs

35

The organs that form hair are __________

Hair follicles

36

Hair papilla

Peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves. Located at the Epithelium at the hair follicle base

37

Hair bulb

Epithelial cells that surround the hair papilla

38

What is the medulla of hair?

The core

39

What does the medulla of hair contain?

Soft keratin, which is soft and flexible

40

Cortex of hair

Matrix cells closer to the edge of the developing hair. Contains hard keratin that gives hair its stiffness

41

What kind of cells make up the cuticle of hair?

Dead Keratinized cells

42

Hair root function

Attaches hair to the hair follicle

43

Hair shaft

Part of hair we see on the surface

44

What makes up the hair follicle structure?

Internal root sheath, external root sheath, and glassy membrane

45

Internal root sheath

Surround the hair root . Ends at sebaceous gland

46

External root sheath

Extends from skin surface to hair matrix.

47

Glassy membrane

Thickened basal lamina of hair, wrapped in a dense connective sheath

48

Root hair plexus

Provides sensitivity to movement of hair

49

Arrector pilli muscle

Ribbon of smooth muscle that extends from the papillary layer of the dermis to the connective sheath of the hair follicle. Elevates hair. Responsible for goosebumps

50

Lanugo

Unpigmented hair in embryonic development

51

What are the three types of hairs?

Vellus hairs, intermediate hairs, and terminal hairs

52

Vellus hairs

Peach fuzz hair found on body surfaces (facial hair)

53

Terminal hair

Heavily pigmented hair that can be curly (ex pubic hair or head hair)

54

Intermediate hair

Hair that changes in distribution (ex upper and lower limbs)

55

Sebaceous glands

Found in dermis, using Holocrine secretion. They can simple alveolar or simple branched alveolar. Secrete sebum

56

Sebum

Oily secretion that provides lubrication and inhibit bacterial growth. Protects keratin of hair shaft

57

Sebaceous follicles

Sebaceous glands that communicate directly with the epidermis and do not produce hairs. They are found on face, back, nipples, and male sex organs

58

Folliculitis

Inflammation caused by bacteria in glands or follicles

59

Furuncle

Boil caused by blockage in glands

60

Sudoriferous Apocrine sweat glands

Sweat glands that release secretions into hair follicles in armpits, nipples, and groin

61

Sudoriferous Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands

Coiled tubular sweat glands that secrete sweat playing a role in thermoregulation, excretion, and protection

62

Myoepithelial cells

Underlying basal lamina they squeeze sweat glands and discharge secretions

63

Ceruminous glands

Modified sweat glands in external auditory canal. Make cerumen

64

Cerumen

Ear wax

65

Nail body covers the ________

Nail bed

66

Where does nail production occur?

Nail root

67

What bounds the nail body?

Nail grooves and nail folds

68

Eponychium (cuticle)

Region that connects the nail to the skin

69

Lunula

Pale crescent near base of nail where blood vessels are obscured

70

Hyponychium

Free edge of nail body that extends over a thickened stratum corneum