Osseus Tissue and Skeletal Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Osseus Tissue and Skeletal Structure Deck (50):
1

What is considered appendicular skeleton?

Bones of limbs and bones of limbs that connect to the trunk

2

Bone is separated from surrounding tissues by what?

Fibrous periosteum

3

When bones surround another tissue what are the inner bony surfaces lined by?

Cellular endosteum

4

What enables bone to resist compression?

Calcium phosphate crystals

5

What do collagen fibers and noncollagenous proteins do for bone?

Provide strength and organic framework for for the formation of mineral crystals

6

What are the cells of mature bone?

Osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts

7

Osteocytes

Bone cells that maintain and monitor protein and mineral content of the surrounding matrix. Calcium release from bone to blood.

8

Lacunae

Filled with osteocytes they are between layers of calcified matrix

9

Lamellae

Matrix layers that surround lacunae

10

Canaliculi

Channels Containing ground substance, interconnect osteocytes situated in adjacent lacunae

11

What junction interconnects processes of osteocytes and Canaliculi ?

Tight junctions

12

Osteoblasts

Secrete osteoid and responsible for the production of new bone. If it gets surrounded by matrix, it becomes an osteocyte

13

Osteoprogenitor cells

Found in inner most periosteum and endosteum lining the medullary cavities, they can differentiate into osteoblasts.

14

Osteoclasts

Found at sites where bone is removed and secrete acid which perform osteolysis.

15

Osteolysis

Erosion of calcium and phosphate into the blood due to an exocytosis of lysosomes

16

What are the two types of osseus tissue?

Compact bone and Spongy bone

17

Osteon

Basic functional unit of compact bone that includes rings of osteocytes around the central canal

18

Central canal

Canal that contains blood vessels that supply the osteon. Haversian canal

19

What is the difference between central canals and perforating canals?

Central canals are parallel to bone surface. Perforating canals are perpendicular to the cell surface

20

Preforating canal

Volkmanns canal. Deliver blood deeper into the bone and service the medullary cavity

21

Concentric Lamellae

Aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone. Resembles a bulls eye target around central canal

22

Interstitial Lamellae

Fill in the spaces between the osteons in compact bone

23

Circumferential Lamellae

Occur at the inner and external surfaces of the bone.

24

What is the difference between spongy bone and compact bone?

Arrangement of spongy bone into trabeculae

25

Trabeculae

Found in spongy bone. Parallel thick branching plates giving spongy bone strength

26

What does spongy bone do for muscles and skeleton?

Reduces the weight of skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move the bones

27

Periosteum

Covers superficial layer of compact bone

28

Where is a periosteum not complete?

Within a joint

29

Epiphyses

Ends of bone

30

Cortex

Surrounds the medullary cavity

31

Diaphysis

Shaft of bone

32

Metaphysis

Where the diaphysis is connected to the epiphysis

33

Fracture

When a bone breaks from impact to the side

34

Which bone type is more capable of handling stresses from different directions?

Spongy

35

Perforating fibers

Collagen fibers incorporated into bone tissue from tendons and superficial periosteum

36

Endosteum

Lines medullary cavity and contains osteoprogenitor cells, covers trabeculae, lines canals. Most active during growth of bone, repair

37

Ossification

Process of replacing other tissues with bone

38

What are the two major forms of ossification?

Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification

39

Intramembranous ossification

Bone develops from Mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue. Occurs in formation of bones such as the clavicle, mandible, and flat bones of the face and skull

40

Endochondral ossification

Bone replaces an existing cartilage model. Bones of limbs and those that bear weight develop by this method

41

Epiphyseal closure

Rate of epiphyseal cartilage enlargement slows and osteoblasts activity accelerates. Epiphyseal cartilage gets narrow until it disappears

42

Epiphyseal line

Line that occurs after epiphyseal growth has ended

43

Articular cartilage

Thin cap of exposed cartilage that prevents damaging bone to bone contact

44

What mechanism of growth enlarges the diameter of bone?

Appositional Growth

45

What are the four major blood vessels in a typical long bone?

Nutrient artery and vein, metaphyseal vessels, epiphyseal vessels, and periosteal vessels

46

Metaphyseal vessels

Supply blood to inner surface of epiphyseal cartilage, where bone is replacing cartilage

47

Epiphyseal vessels

Uses foramina to supply osseous tissue and medullary cavities

48

Periosteal vessels

Provide blood to the superficial osteons of the shaft

49

Osteopenia

Inadequate ossification when aging

50

What is considered the axial skeleton?

Bones of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs