Flashcards in Foundations Deck (55):
Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation
Muscular system major function
Locomotion, support, and heat production
Nervous System Major Function
Directing immediate responses to stimuli ,usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
Endocrine system major function
Directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems
Cardiovascular system major function
Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases
Lymphatic system major function
Defense against infection and disease
Respiratory system major function
Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
Digestive System major function
Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water
Urinary System major function
Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products. Controls pH
Reproductive system major function
Production of sex cells and hormones
Lying face up
Lying face down
Toward an attached base
Toward the midline (towards umbilical)
Away from the midline
Away from an attached base. (E.g. Fingers are distal to the wrist)
Towards the body surface
Anterior or ventral
Front (belly side)
Posterior or dorsal
The back or behind
Cranial or cephalic
Toward the head
Toward the tail
Cuts body horizontally
Cuts body vertically
Frontal or coronal plane
Cuts body vertically but can see front of body
What does the ventral body cavity contain?
Contains organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Organs that project into cavities. They change size and shape. They project into moist internal chambers that allow for expansion and limited movement
What does he thoracic cavity contain?
Lung, heart, inferior portion of the esophagus, thymus
What establishes the boundaries of the thoracic cavity?
Muscles and bones of the chest wall and diaphragm, muscular sheets that separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominal
The pleural cavity contains
Serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity. Reduces friction as the lung expands and recoils.
Covers the outer surfaces of the lung
Covers the opposing mediastinal surface and the inner body wall
Mass of connective tissue that surrounds, stabilizes, and supports the esophagus, trachea, thymus, and major blood vessels to and from heart
Small chamber that surrounds the heart. It is within the mediastinum
Serous membrane covering the heart
Inner portion of the pericardial cavity that covers heart
Outer portion of the pericardial cavity
What does the abdominal pelvic cavity contain?
Peritoneal cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
A double sheet of peritoneum that provides support and stability for the stomach, small intestine, and portion of the large intestine. In the peritoneal cavity
Parietal of cavities usually means
Lining the body wall
Visceral for body cavities usually means
Covering the enclosed organs
What does the abdominal cavity contain?
Liver, stomach, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, small intestine and most of the large intestine.
Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. Contains the last segment of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs
Analyze the internal structures of cells
Study of tissues
What are the four basic tissue types?
Connective, epithelial, muscle, and neural
What does microscopic anatomy allow us to do?
See structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye
Tissues in combination form
Examination of large structures to the unaided eye
Systemic approach of gross anatomy
Structure of major organ systems
Essential elements in the body
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen
What makes muscle cells different?
They contract shortening their longitudinal axis
What are the 11 organ systems?
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
Absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells