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Flashcards in Foundations Deck (55):
1

Skeletal system

Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation

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Muscular system major function

Locomotion, support, and heat production

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Nervous System Major Function

Directing immediate responses to stimuli ,usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems

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Endocrine system major function

Directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems

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Cardiovascular system major function

Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases

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Lymphatic system major function

Defense against infection and disease

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Respiratory system major function

Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood

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Digestive System major function

Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water

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Urinary System major function

Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products. Controls pH

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Reproductive system major function

Production of sex cells and hormones

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Supine

Lying face up

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Prone

Lying face down

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Proximal

Toward an attached base

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Medial

Toward the midline (towards umbilical)

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Lateral

Away from the midline

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Distal

Away from an attached base. (E.g. Fingers are distal to the wrist)

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Superficial

Towards the body surface

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Anterior or ventral

Front (belly side)

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Posterior or dorsal

The back or behind

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Cranial or cephalic

Toward the head

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Caudal

Toward the tail

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Transverse plane

Cuts body horizontally

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Sagittal plane

Cuts body vertically

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Frontal or coronal plane

Cuts body vertically but can see front of body

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What does the ventral body cavity contain?

Contains organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems

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Viscera

Organs that project into cavities. They change size and shape. They project into moist internal chambers that allow for expansion and limited movement

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What does he thoracic cavity contain?

Lung, heart, inferior portion of the esophagus, thymus

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What establishes the boundaries of the thoracic cavity?

Muscles and bones of the chest wall and diaphragm, muscular sheets that separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominal

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The pleural cavity contains

The lungs

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Pleura

Serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity. Reduces friction as the lung expands and recoils.

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Visceral pleura

Covers the outer surfaces of the lung

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Parietal pleura

Covers the opposing mediastinal surface and the inner body wall

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Mediastinum

Mass of connective tissue that surrounds, stabilizes, and supports the esophagus, trachea, thymus, and major blood vessels to and from heart

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Pericardial cavity

Small chamber that surrounds the heart. It is within the mediastinum

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Pericardium

Serous membrane covering the heart

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Visceral pericardium

Inner portion of the pericardial cavity that covers heart

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Parietal pericardium

Outer portion of the pericardial cavity

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What does the abdominal pelvic cavity contain?

Peritoneal cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity

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Mesenteries

A double sheet of peritoneum that provides support and stability for the stomach, small intestine, and portion of the large intestine. In the peritoneal cavity

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Parietal of cavities usually means

Lining the body wall

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Visceral for body cavities usually means

Covering the enclosed organs

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What does the abdominal cavity contain?

Liver, stomach, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, small intestine and most of the large intestine.

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Pelvic Cavity

Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. Contains the last segment of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs

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Cytology

Analyze the internal structures of cells

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Histology

Study of tissues

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What are the four basic tissue types?

Connective, epithelial, muscle, and neural

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What does microscopic anatomy allow us to do?

See structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye

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Tissues in combination form

Organs

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Gross anatomy

Examination of large structures to the unaided eye

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Systemic approach of gross anatomy

Structure of major organ systems

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Essential elements in the body

Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen

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What makes muscle cells different?

They contract shortening their longitudinal axis

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What are the 11 organ systems?

Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive

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Respiration

Absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells

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Integumentary system major function

Protection from environmental hazards and temp control