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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (107):
1

Where is the heart located?

Mediastinum

2

What does the pericardial sac secrete and which part?

Serous fluid from parietal pericardium

3

If there is less contraction force, what happens to blood pressure?

It lowers

4

What is cardiac tamponade?

Bleeding into pericardial cavity and a clot forms. To treat clot is scooped out and sealed off

5

Where is myocardium the thickest?

Left ventricle

6

What allows for ionic charges in muscle cell?

Gap junctions

7

What prevents cardiac muscle from tearing apart?

Desmosomes

8

What are characteristics of cardiac muscle cells?

Branched, uninucleate, striated, and have intercalated discs with gap junctions

9

What all brings blood to right atrium?

Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus

10

What muscle is on the anterior heart wall?

Pectinate muscle

11

What muscle is on posterior heart wall?

Smooth muscle

12

If blood goes in opposite direction what is that called?

A heart murmur

13

What do chordae tendinae do?

Close valves when pressure is on them

14

What muscle is on auricles?

Pectinate muscle

15

What produces the sounds heard through a stethoscope?

Closing of valves

16

What do septal marginal trabeculae do?

Prevent ventricle from overfilling

17

What do moderator bands do?

Moderate the amount of stretch in the right ventricle. Allows for greater contraction depolarizing quicker

18

What valve causes the first sound of contraction?

Atrioventricular valves

19

What valves cause the second sound of contraction?

Semilunar valves closing

20

What are problems with prosthetic heart valves?

Thrombosis, infection, structural failure, dehiscence, disproportion

21

What is dehiscence

Separation from prosthetic valve suture line from the heart, leading to paravascular leakage

22

Disproption of heart valve is what?

Prosthetic valve may not fit well In heart, so blood flow is not optimal

23

Blockage to which artery leads to death?

Left anterior descending artery

24

What is the biggest factor in smaller BVs?

Resistance

25

Pathway conduction system

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right and left bundle branches, purkinje fibers

26

Function of AV node

Pauses conduction allowing atrium to complete contraction as blood goes ventricles. Causes about 100 msec delay

27

Once impulse reaches purkinje fibers, what happens?

Ventricular contraction begins

28

What is the QRS complex caused by?

Ventricular depolarization

29

What is the T wave caused by?

Ventricular repolarization

30

What is P wave represent?

Atrial depolarization

31

What does Ach do?

Decreases heart rate

32

What connects to SA and AV node for sympathetic activation?

Postganglionic fibers.

33

What do postganglionic fibers secrete?

Epinephrine

34

What does epinephrine do and what is it secreted by?

Increases heart rate, strength of contraction, and cardiac output

35

The middle cerebral artery supplies which sulcus?

Central sulcus

36

If there is a stroke in posterior cerebral artery what may be effected?

Vision

37

If there is a stroke in anterior cerebral artery what may be effected?

Speech

38

What are the 5 special fetal structures of the cardiovascular system?

Ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, ductus venosus, umbilical vein, umbilical arteries

39

Fetal structure of ligamentum arteriosum?

Ductus arteriosus

40

Fetal structure of fossa ovalis

Formen ovale

41

Fetal structure of ligamentum venosum

Ductus venosum

42

Fetal structure of ligamentum teres

Umbilical vein

43

Fetal structure of medial umbilical ligaments?

Umbilical arteries

44

What is ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Hole in membranous or muscular portions of intraventricular septum that produces a left to right shunt, more severe with larger defects

45

What is atrial septal defect? (ASD)

Hole in interatrial septum produces a modest left to right shunt. Blue baby

46

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Ductus arteriosus remains open and left to right shunt develops

47

Tetralogy of fallot

Pulmonic stenosis results in right ventricular hypertrophy and right to left shunt across a VSD which has an overriding aorta

48

Transposition of great vessels

Aorta rises from right ventricle and pulmonic trunk from left ventricle. There is right to left shunting. VSD or ASD with PDA is needed for survival

49

What are the three layers of blood vessels superficial to deep

Adventitia, media, intima

50

Functions of heart

Transport O2, Transport nutrients, transport hormones, transport antibodies, transport waste to kidneys

51

What are capillaries?

Small thin walled vessels that interconnect arteries and veins

52

Where is the pericardial cavity?

In the mediastinum

53

What is fibrous pericardium made of?

Dense irregular CT

54

The serous pericardium includes what?

Visceral and parietal pericardium

55

What does pericardial fluid do?

Found within pericardial cavity, it reduces friction between opposing surfaces

56

What is epicardium made of?

Areolar CT

57

What tissue makes up endocardium?

Simple squamous

58

What do intercalated discs have that make them special?

Desmosomes connecting sarcolemma, fascia adherens which allows cells to pull with max efficiency, gap junctions

59

Why is cardiac muscle called a functional synctium?

Contraction of one cell causes contraction of others

60

Constrictive pericarditis

Elasticity of pericardium may be reduced due to inflammation of pericardium

61

What kind of pericardium are valves?

Endocardium

62

What separates the right and left atria?

Interatrial septum

63

How long is foramen ovale present?

5th week until birth

64

If foramen ovale does not close what happens?

Efficiency of systemic circulation is reduced leading to cardiac enlargement, fluid buildup in lungs, and heart failure

65

What is the span of the moderator band?

From interventricular septum in right ventricle to bases of papillary muscles

66

What are the names for the left atrioventricular valve?

Mitral valve and bicuspid valve

67

Is there a moderator band in left ventricle?

No

68

What prevents aortic semilunar valve cusps from sticking to the wall of the aorta?

Aortic sinuses where right and left coronary arteries originate

69

For their contractions, which ventricle relies on the others pressure?

Right relies on left because of its thinner wall

70

What happens when the right ventricle contracts?

Distance between base and apex decreases and diameter of ventricular chamber decreases

71

What is the extensive connective tissue network that encircle base of pulmonary trunk and valves of the heart?

Fibrous skeleton

72

What are functions of the fibrous skeleton?

Stabilizing positions of muscle cells and valves. Providing physical support for cardiac muscle cells for blood vessels and nerves in myocardium, distribute forces of contraction, reinforcing valves preventing over expansion of heart, helping heart return to original shape after contraction, isolates atrial muscle cells from, ventricle muscle cells for coordination of contraction

73

Branches of which artery supply the sinoatrial node?

Coronary artery

74

Anastomoses

Interconnection between arteries/veins that keeps blood flow constant regardless of pressure fluctuations

75

What is an example of an anastomoses?

In the coronary circuit. Small branches from LAD to posterior interventricular artery

76

Coronary ischemia

Partial or complete blockage of coronary arteries due to plaque

77

Angina pectoris

First symptoms of CAD. Insufficiency in delivery of oxygen when workload increases

78

What cells are responsible for conducting within the heart?

Nodal cells and pacemaker cells

79

What do conducting fibers do?

Distribute contractile stimulus to the general myocardium

80

What are nodal cells responsible for?

Establishing rate of heart contraction

81

Describe pacemaker cells

Usually reach threshold first and determine normal rate of contraction. Found in SA node

82

What is moderator bands role in conduction

Spreads impulse to papillary muscle in right ventricle

83

Where does left bundle branch deliver impulses to?

Left ventricle

84

Where does right bundle branch deliver impulses to?

Right ventricle

85

Where does purkinje fibers deliver impulses to?

Contractile cells of ventricular myocardium

86

What receptors relay information back to cardiac centers?

Baroreceptors (BP) and chemoreceptors(gas).

87

What innervates Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors?

Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves

88

NE increases HR by binding to which receptors on what cells?

Beta receptors on nodal cells

89

Ach decreases heart rate by binding to which receptors on which cells?

Muscarinic receptors of nodal cells

90

Which layer of blood vessels does vasoconstriction and vasodilation?

Media

91

Vasa vasorum

Blood vessels in the walls of large vessels that supply smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and fibrocytes of media and adventitia

92

Elastic arteries

Largest type of artery. Can expand handling large volume of blood. Small density of smooth muscle cells in media

93

What are examples of elastic arteries?

Pulmonary trunk, aorta, common carotid, subclavian, common iliac artery

94

What are the three types of arteries?

Elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arteriole

95

Where do muscular arteries transport blood and what are examples?

Skeletal muscle and internal organs. Have a thicker media. External carotid, brachial artery, femoral artery, Mesenteric artery

96

Describe arterioles

Smaller arteries. Poor adventitia. Control blood flow between arteries and capillaries

97

Describe continuous capillaries

Complete epithelial lining connected by tight junctions and desmosomes. Found in most of the body

98

Describe fenestrated capillaries

Windows in endothelial lining. Allow molecules to pass through. Found in kidneys, endocrine organs

99

What are sinusoids?

Flattened and irregular. They follow the internal contours of complex organs. Found in liver, bone marrow, spleen, supra renal glands

100

What are atriovenous anastomoses?

Direct connections between arterioles and Venules. Found where changes in body position could alter blood flow

101

Where are arterial anastomoses found?

Brain, heart, stomach, and other organs needing a lot of blood supply

102

What is capillary autoregulation?

Pre capillary sphincters go through cycles of alternately contracting and blood flow in capillary occurs in pulses. Blood reaches Venules by one route now then another later

103

Cardiac tamponade

If pericardium becomes inflamed or infected, fluid accumulates

104

The CT of the epicardium and interventricular sulci?

Adipose tissue

105

What separates the atria and ventricles?

Coronary sulcus or atrioventricular sulcus

106

When the heart is rotated slightly to the left, what is the anterior surface called?

Sternocostal surface

107

Differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle

Cardiac dependent on aerobic, mitochondria contain myoglobin, T tubules do not form triads, larger circulatory supply, contract without instruction, intercalated discs