Exam 4 Urinary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Urinary Deck (50):
1

What are functions of the urinary system?

Filter plasma, regulate blood pressure and blood volume, secrete renin and erythropoietin, secrete calcitrol, buffer blood, detoxify blood, gluconeogenesis

2

Renin function

Causes vasoconstriction leading to sodium retention and higher BP. Leads to ADH production

3

What does erythropoietin do?

Increases concentration of RBCs, increase viscosity, increase blood pressure

4

Where is renal fascia?

Anterior towards the abdominal wall

5

Nepharatosis

Drooping of kidney if adipose capsule deteriorates

6

What is the space that renal sinus opens into?

Hilum

7

What are renal medulla surrounded by?

Cortical tissue

8

How much of the cardiac output does the kidney obtain?

20-25%

9

What does the renal artery branch into?

Segmental arteries

10

What do segmental arteries divide into?

Interlobar arteries

11

What does the interlobar arteries supply blood to?

Arcuate arteries between renal cortex and medulla

12

What does the arcuate arteries give rise to?

Cortical radiate arteries or interlobular arteries that supply individual nephrons

13

Name the order of blood vessels that make up the renal vein

Interlobular vein to arcuate vein to interlobar vein to renal vein

14

Functions of sympathetic innervation of kidneys

Regulation of renal blood flow and pressure. Renin release. Stimulation of water and sodium reabsorption

15

What branches off of Interlobular arteries?

Afferent arterioles

16

What does peritubular capillaries drain into?

Small Venules that carry blood to the interlobular veins

17

A person with diabetes insipidis would have problems with

Reabsorption

18

What two tissue types are in ureters?

Smooth muscle and transitional epithelium

19

Where does most reabsorption occur

PCT

20

What is responsible for creating hypertonicity for reabsorption of water?

Vasa recta

21

What is vasa recta?

Small group of slender capillaries that reabsorb water and return it to the general circulation

22

Where are podocytes located?

Visceral epithelium that covers glomerular capillaries

23

Where are glomerular capillaries connected to blood stream?

Vascular pole where the connection between parietal and visceral epithelium takes place

24

What kind of capillaries are glomerular capillaries?

Fenestrated capillaries

25

What physical barriers must filtrate go through?

Capillary endothelium, basal lamina, and glomerular epithelium

26

When the basal lamina of the renal corpuscle encircles two or more capillaries, what cells are present?

Mesangial cells

27

What are functions of mesangial cells?

Physical support for capillaries, engulf organic materials, regulate diameter of capillaries, and regulate blood flow and filtration

28

Where are thick segments of the nephron loop often found?

Cortex

29

What kind of epithelium lines the thin segment of the nephron loop?

Simple squamous epithelium

30

What kind of transport does the thick segment of ascending limb of Nephron loop have?

Active transport

31

Thin ascending and descending limbs are only freely permeable to what?

Water

32

How does DCT differ from PCT?

DCT has smaller diameter, epithelial cells lack microvilli, boundaries between epithelial cells in the DCT are distinct

33

What is the DCT an important site for?

Active secretion, selective reabsorption of sodium, selective reabsorption of water

34

What is the macula densa?

Epithelial cells near afferent arteriole in DCT at vascular pole. They monitor electrolyte concentration

35

What cells form the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Macula densa, extra glomerular mesengial cells, juxtaglomerular cells

36

What is the trigone function?

Channel urine into urethra when bladder is full

37

Function of detrusor muscle

Compresses bladder putting contents into the urethra

38

In the micturition reflex, the pelvic nerves carry impulses that are generated into the sacral spinal cord. What comes next to make us aware?

Parasympathetic motor neurons in spinal cord, contraction of urinary bladder, interneurons relay sensations to cerebral cortex

39

Three layers deep to superficial stabilizing kidney

Fibrous capsule, perirenal fat, renal fascia

40

What does a renal lobe contain?

Renal pyramid, overlying area of renal cortex, and renal columns

41

Where does urine production occur?

Renal lobes

42

What is in the renal medulla?

Renal pyramids, renal papilla, renal columns

43

What do cortical radiate arteries supply?

Renal lobe

44

What does afferent arterioles supply?

Individual nephrons

45

Secondary processes are separated by filtration slits. What kind of filtrate does filtration slits bring about?

Water with dissolved ions, small organic molecules, and few plasma proteins

46

Where does entry into the PCT lie?

Tubular pole of renal corpuscle

47

What can basal lamina let through?

Small plasma proteins ions nutrients

48

What kind of pores does capillary endothelium have?

Large pores that restrict diffusion of blood cells but allow for large proteins and solutes

49

What can't pass through filtration slits?

Plasma proteins

50

Glomerular filtrate is free from what?

Proteins