Flashcards in Exam 4 Urinary Deck (50):
What are functions of the urinary system?
Filter plasma, regulate blood pressure and blood volume, secrete renin and erythropoietin, secrete calcitrol, buffer blood, detoxify blood, gluconeogenesis
Causes vasoconstriction leading to sodium retention and higher BP. Leads to ADH production
What does erythropoietin do?
Increases concentration of RBCs, increase viscosity, increase blood pressure
Where is renal fascia?
Anterior towards the abdominal wall
Drooping of kidney if adipose capsule deteriorates
What is the space that renal sinus opens into?
What are renal medulla surrounded by?
How much of the cardiac output does the kidney obtain?
What does the renal artery branch into?
What do segmental arteries divide into?
What does the interlobar arteries supply blood to?
Arcuate arteries between renal cortex and medulla
What does the arcuate arteries give rise to?
Cortical radiate arteries or interlobular arteries that supply individual nephrons
Name the order of blood vessels that make up the renal vein
Interlobular vein to arcuate vein to interlobar vein to renal vein
Functions of sympathetic innervation of kidneys
Regulation of renal blood flow and pressure. Renin release. Stimulation of water and sodium reabsorption
What branches off of Interlobular arteries?
What does peritubular capillaries drain into?
Small Venules that carry blood to the interlobular veins
A person with diabetes insipidis would have problems with
What two tissue types are in ureters?
Smooth muscle and transitional epithelium
Where does most reabsorption occur
What is responsible for creating hypertonicity for reabsorption of water?
What is vasa recta?
Small group of slender capillaries that reabsorb water and return it to the general circulation
Where are podocytes located?
Visceral epithelium that covers glomerular capillaries
Where are glomerular capillaries connected to blood stream?
Vascular pole where the connection between parietal and visceral epithelium takes place
What kind of capillaries are glomerular capillaries?
What physical barriers must filtrate go through?
Capillary endothelium, basal lamina, and glomerular epithelium
When the basal lamina of the renal corpuscle encircles two or more capillaries, what cells are present?
What are functions of mesangial cells?
Physical support for capillaries, engulf organic materials, regulate diameter of capillaries, and regulate blood flow and filtration
Where are thick segments of the nephron loop often found?
What kind of epithelium lines the thin segment of the nephron loop?
Simple squamous epithelium
What kind of transport does the thick segment of ascending limb of Nephron loop have?
Thin ascending and descending limbs are only freely permeable to what?
How does DCT differ from PCT?
DCT has smaller diameter, epithelial cells lack microvilli, boundaries between epithelial cells in the DCT are distinct
What is the DCT an important site for?
Active secretion, selective reabsorption of sodium, selective reabsorption of water
What is the macula densa?
Epithelial cells near afferent arteriole in DCT at vascular pole. They monitor electrolyte concentration
What cells form the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Macula densa, extra glomerular mesengial cells, juxtaglomerular cells
What is the trigone function?
Channel urine into urethra when bladder is full
Function of detrusor muscle
Compresses bladder putting contents into the urethra
In the micturition reflex, the pelvic nerves carry impulses that are generated into the sacral spinal cord. What comes next to make us aware?
Parasympathetic motor neurons in spinal cord, contraction of urinary bladder, interneurons relay sensations to cerebral cortex
Three layers deep to superficial stabilizing kidney
Fibrous capsule, perirenal fat, renal fascia
What does a renal lobe contain?
Renal pyramid, overlying area of renal cortex, and renal columns
Where does urine production occur?
What is in the renal medulla?
Renal pyramids, renal papilla, renal columns
What do cortical radiate arteries supply?
What does afferent arterioles supply?
Secondary processes are separated by filtration slits. What kind of filtrate does filtration slits bring about?
Water with dissolved ions, small organic molecules, and few plasma proteins
Where does entry into the PCT lie?
Tubular pole of renal corpuscle
What can basal lamina let through?
Small plasma proteins ions nutrients
What kind of pores does capillary endothelium have?
Large pores that restrict diffusion of blood cells but allow for large proteins and solutes
What can't pass through filtration slits?