Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Deck (43)
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1
Q

manifest content

A

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

2
Q

night terrors

A

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

3
Q

addiction

A

compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.

3
Q

alcohol dependence

A

(popularly known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use.

4
Q

tolerance

A

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.

5
Q

REM rebound

A

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).

5
Q

sleep apnea

A

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

5
Q

withdrawal

A

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

6
Q

psychoactive drug

A

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

7
Q

depressants

A

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

7
Q

hallucinations

A

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

7
Q

insomnia

A

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

8
Q

change blindness

A

failing to notice changes in the environment.

9
Q

opiates

A

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

10
Q

nicotine

A

a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.

10
Q

REM sleep

A

rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

12
Q

alpha waves

A

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

12
Q

latent content

A

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).

13
Q

blindsight

A

a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.

13
Q

near-death experience

A

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

14
Q

LSD

A

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

14
Q

selective attention

A

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.

15
Q

posthypnotic suggestion

A

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

17
Q

cognitive neuroscience

A

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

18
Q

THC

A

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

19
Q

stimulants

A

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

20
Q

consciousness

A

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

22
Q

circadian

A

rhythm the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

24
Q

hallucinogens

A

psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

26
Q

delta waves

A

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

27
Q

sleep

A

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999.)

29
Q

dual processing

A

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.

31
Q

dissociation

A

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

32
Q

narcolepsy

A

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

34
Q

barbiturates

A

drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.

35
Q

psychological dependence

A

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.

36
Q

dream

A

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.

37
Q

inattentional blindness

A

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.

39
Q

hypnosis

A

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

40
Q

amphetamines

A

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speededup body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

41
Q

physical dependence

A

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

42
Q

Ecstasy (MDMA)

A

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

43
Q

methamphetamine

A

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.