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General Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (44)
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1
Q

stimulus

A

any event or situation that evokes a response.

2
Q

discrimination

A

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

2
Q

unconditioned response (UR)

A

in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth).

3
Q

higher-order conditioning

A

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.

3
Q

shaping

A

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

5
Q

law of effect

A

Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

6
Q

reinforcement

A

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

7
Q

operant behavior

A

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.

8
Q

fixed-ratio schedule

A

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

8
Q

respondent behavior

A

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

9
Q

observational learning

A

learning by observing others.

10
Q

negative reinforcement

A

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)

11
Q

extrinsic motivation

A

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

12
Q

generalization

A

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

12
Q

intrinsic motivation

A

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.

12
Q

primary reinforcer

A

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

14
Q

classical conditioning

A

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.

15
Q

cognitive map

A

a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.

16
Q

positive reinforcement

A

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

17
Q

reinforcement schedule

A

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.

18
Q

modeling

A

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

20
Q

associative learning

A

learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).

21
Q

spontaneous recovery

A

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

22
Q

partial (intermittent) reinforcement

A

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.

24
Q

fixed-interval schedule

A

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

25
Q

unconditioned stimulus (US)

A

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR).

25
Q

variable-interval schedule

A

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

26
Q

latent learning

A

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

27
Q

operant chamber

A

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

28
Q

mirror neurons

A

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy.

30
Q

conditioned response (CR)

A

in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).

33
Q

operant conditioning

A

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

34
Q

extinction

A

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

35
Q

behaviorism

A

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

36
Q

prosocial behavior

A

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.

36
Q

punishment

A

an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.

37
Q

neutral stimulus (NS)

A

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

38
Q

learning

A

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

39
Q

conditioned reinforcer

A

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.

40
Q

variable-ratio schedule

A

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

41
Q

conditioned stimulus (CS)

A

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR).

42
Q

acquisition

A

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

43
Q

cognitive learning

A

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.

44
Q

continuous reinforcement

A

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.