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Flashcards in Thinking and Language Deck (25)
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1
Q

availability heuristic

A

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

1
Q

morpheme

A

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).

2
Q

belief perseverance

A

clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

3
Q

algorithm

A

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error-prone-use of heuristics.

4
Q

concept

A

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

4
Q

linguistic determinism

A

Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

5
Q

phoneme

A

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

6
Q

aphasia

A

impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding).

8
Q

Broca’s area

A

controls language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

9
Q

overconfidence

A

the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

10
Q

confirmation bias

A

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

10
Q

intuition

A

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

11
Q

heuristic

A

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

12
Q

telegraphic speech

A

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-“go car”-using mostly nouns and verbs.

13
Q

one-word stage

A

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

14
Q

cognition

A

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

14
Q

insight

A

a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

16
Q

babbling stage

A

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

18
Q

language

A

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

19
Q

Wernicke’s area

A

controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.

20
Q

grammar

A

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.

22
Q

framing

A

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

22
Q

mental set

A

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

24
Q

prototype

A

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

25
Q

two-word stage

A

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.