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General Psychology > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (39)
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1
Q

internal locus of control

A

the perception that you control your own fate.

2
Q

learned helplessness

A

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

2
Q

self-esteem

A

one’s feelings of high or low self-worth.

3
Q

self-serving bias

A

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

4
Q

collective unconscious

A

Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.

4
Q

reciprocal determinism

A

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

4
Q

unconditional positive regard

A

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.

5
Q

trait

A

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

6
Q

self

A

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

6
Q

self-control

A

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards.

6
Q

superego

A

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

7
Q

narcissism

A

excessive self-love and self-absorption.

8
Q

Oedipus complex

A

according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

9
Q

personality inventory

A

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agreedisagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

10
Q

terror-management theory

A

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

11
Q

fixation

A

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

12
Q

social-cognitive perspective

A

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

13
Q

self-concept

A

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”

15
Q

humanistic theories

A

view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.

16
Q

spotlight effect

A

overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).

17
Q

repression

A

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

17
Q

self-actualization

A

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

19
Q

defense mechanisms

A

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

20
Q

id

A

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

21
Q

free association

A

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

23
Q

positive psychology

A

the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

24
Q

psychosexual stages

A

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

25
Q

unconscious

A

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

27
Q

psychodynamic theories

A

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.

28
Q

projective test

A

a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.

29
Q

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

A

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

31
Q

empirically derived test

A

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

32
Q

personal control

A

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.

34
Q

identification

A

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos.

35
Q

personality

A

an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

36
Q

ego

A

the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

37
Q

Rorschach inkblot test

A

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

38
Q

psychoanalysis

A

(1) Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; (2) Freud’s therapeutic technique used in treating psychological disorders.

39
Q

external locus of control

A

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.