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General Psychology > Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intelligence Deck (26)
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1
Q

achievement test

A

a test designed to assess what a person has learned.

2
Q

factor analysis

A

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score.

2
Q

Stanford-Binet

A

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test.

3
Q

standardization

A

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.

4
Q

mental age

A

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

4
Q

validity

A

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity.)

5
Q

stereotype threat

A

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

6
Q

cohort

A

a group of people from a given time period.

6
Q

Down syndrome

A

a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.

7
Q

predictive validity

A

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion related validity.)

8
Q

intelligence

A

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

9
Q

intellectual disability

A

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound. (Formerly referred to as mental retardation.)

11
Q

emotional intelligence

A

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

12
Q

savant syndrome

A

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

13
Q

normal curve

A

(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean, or average (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

15
Q

creativity

A

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

16
Q

intelligence quotient (IQ)

A

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca * 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

18
Q

aptitude test

A

a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

19
Q

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

A

the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

20
Q

content validity

A

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

20
Q

heritability

A

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

22
Q

reliability

A

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.

23
Q

intelligence test

A

a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

24
Q

general intelligence (g)

A

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

25
Q

crystallized intelligence

A

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.

26
Q

fluid intelligence

A

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.