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General Psychology > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (36)
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1
Q

relearning

A

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.

1
Q

retrograde amnesia

A

an inability to retrieve information from one’s past.

2
Q

anterograde amnesia

A

an inability to form new memories.

2
Q

hippocampus

A

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.

3
Q

mnemonics

A

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

4
Q

implicit memory

A

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)

4
Q

retroactive interference

A

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

5
Q

long-term potentiation

A

an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

6
Q

automatic processing

A

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

8
Q

explicit memory

A

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)

8
Q

retrieval

A

the process of getting information out of memory storage.

9
Q

chunking

A

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

10
Q

recall

A

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

10
Q

source amnesia

A

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

11
Q

serial position effect

A

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

11
Q

spacing effect

A

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

13
Q

long-term memory

A

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

14
Q

shallow processing

A

encoding on a basic level based on structure or appearance of words.

15
Q

proactive interference

A

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

16
Q

deep processing

A

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

18
Q

testing effect

A

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

20
Q

sensory memory

A

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

21
Q

echoic memory

A

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

22
Q

working memory

A

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from longterm memory.

23
Q

encoding

A

the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning.

24
Q

short-term memory

A

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

25
Q

mood-congruent memory

A

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

26
Q

recognition

A

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

27
Q

effortful processing

A

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

29
Q

Deja vu

A

that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

30
Q

iconic memory

A

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

32
Q

storage

A

the retention of encoded information over time.

33
Q

misinformation effect

A

incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.

34
Q

memory

A

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

35
Q

repression

A

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

36
Q

flashbulb memory

A

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.