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General Psychology > Developing Through the Life Span > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developing Through the Life Span Deck (40)
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1
Q

embryo

A

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

2
Q

assimilation

A

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

2
Q

preoperational stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

3
Q

developmental psychology

A

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

3
Q

habituation

A

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

3
Q

theory of mind

A

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

4
Q

conservation

A

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

5
Q

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

A

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

6
Q

menarche

A

the first menstrual period.

6
Q

sensorimotor stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

7
Q

longitudinal study

A

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.

7
Q

teratogens

A

(literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

9
Q

autism

A

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind.

10
Q

accommodation

A

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

11
Q

fetus

A

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

12
Q

secondary sex characteristics

A

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

13
Q

cross-sectional study

A

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.

14
Q

imprinting

A

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

15
Q

attachment

A

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

16
Q

intimacy

A

in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.

17
Q

concrete operational stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

17
Q

critical period

A

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

18
Q

zygote

A

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

20
Q

cognition

A

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

21
Q

puberty

A

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.

22
Q

object permanence

A

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

23
Q

primary sex characteristics

A

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

25
Q

adolescence

A

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

26
Q

stranger anxiety

A

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

27
Q

self-concept

A

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”

29
Q

egocentrism

A

in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view.

30
Q

social clock

A

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.

32
Q

formal operational stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

33
Q

identity

A

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

35
Q

emerging adulthood

A

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.

36
Q

schema

A

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

37
Q

basic trust

A

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

38
Q

social identity

A

the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships.

39
Q

menopause

A

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

40
Q

maturation

A

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.