What can be used to artificially change a person's fertility?
Which hormone can be used as a contraceptive?
Can be used to prevent the release of an egg
Explain why oestrogen works as a constraceptive
If oestrogen is taken every day to keep the level of it permanently high, it inhibits the production of FSH, and after a while the egg development and production stop and stay stopped
What hormone, besides oestrogen, can reduce fertility?
By stimulating the production of thick cervical mucus which prevents sperm from getting through and reaching the egg
What is 'the pill'?
An oral contraceptive
When was the pill first introduced?
What did the pill contain when it was first introduced?
What was it known as?
High levels of oestrogen and progesterone
The combined oral contraceptive pill
How was the pill changed from its original form, and why?
Now contains lower doses of oestrogen because of concerns about the link between the oestrogen in the pill and side effects like blood clots
Name the 2 pros of the pill
1. Over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy
2. It reduces the risk of getting some types of cancer
Name the 3 cons of the pill
1. It isn't 100% effective - still chance of pregnancy
2. It can cause side effects: headaches, nausea, irregular menstrual bleding, and fluid retension
3. Doesn't protect against STDs
Name one advantage and one disadvantage of the progesterone-only pill
- Has fewer side-effects than normal pill
- Is not as effective
Which hormones can artificially help increase fertility?
FSH and LH
Some women do not produce high enough levels of FSH to cause their eggs to mature, and
no eggs released = no pregnancy
Injecting FSH and LH can stimulate egg release in the ovaries
Name the pro of injecting FSH and LH to increase fertility
1. Helps people get pregnant who previously couldn't
Name the 2 cons of injecting FSH and LH to increase fertility
1. It doesn't always work - some people may have to do it many times which can be expensive
2. Too many eggs could be stimulated, resulting in unexpected multiple pregnancies
What can IVF do?
Help people have children
Name the 4 steps to IVF
1. FSH and LH given to mother to stimulate egg production
2. Eggs collected from mother and sperm collected from father
3. Fertilised in lab - grown in embryos
4. Once embyos are tiny balls of cells, one or two are transferred to the mother's uterus
In IVF, why are FSH and LH given to the mother to stimulate egg production?
So more than one egg can be collected
Why is more than one embyo transferred into the mother's uterus?
To improve the chance of a successful pregnancy
Name the pro of IVF
1. Fertility treatment can give an infertile couple a child
Name 3 cons of IVF
1. Some of the mothers can have a strong reaction to the hormones - abdominal pain, vomiting, dehydration
2. Reports suggest increase in risk of developing cancer from fertility treaments (though other reports do not)
3. Risk of multiple births - dangerous for mother and fetuses (increased chance of miscarriage, stillbirth etc)